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psy290 lecs 8-10 (chp9,12-15).pdf

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Junchul Kim

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Eating SexHormones 120522 130 PM EatingBelieveo hungereating are normally triggered when bodys energy resources fall below prescribed optimal level set pointAssume ohungereating system evolved to supply body with right amount of energy DigestionPurpose of hungero inc probability of eatingPurpose of eatingo supply body with molecular building blocksenergy needed to survivefunctionDigestiono gastrointestinal process of breaking down foodabsorbing its constituents into the bodyChewing breaks up foodmixes it with salivaSaliva lubricates foodbegins digestionsSwallowing moves fooddrink down esophagus to stomachStomach functions as a storage reservoir hydrochloric acid breaks food into small particles pepsin breaks down protein into aaStomach empties contents through pyloric sphincter into duodenumDigestive enzymes in duodenum break down proteins to aa starchcomplex sugars into simple sugars simple sugarsaa pass through duodenum wall into bloodstream to liverFats emulsified by bile manufactured by liver stored in gall bladder carried by small ducts in duodenum wall into lymphatic systemRemaining waterelectrolytes absorbed from waste in large intestines rest ejected from anus Energy StorageLipids fat Amino acid protein Glucose carbohydrateso Most stored as fats little as glycogenproteinChanges in body weighto changes in amount of stored body fatGlycogeno stored in livermuscles easily converted into glucoseFats preferredo 1g of fat stores 2x as much energy as 1g glycogen glycogen holds water 3 Phases of Energy MetabolismCephalic phaseo Preparatory phase sight smell thought of food o Ends when food starts to be absorbed into blood streamAbsorptive phase o Energy absorbed into bloodstream from meal is meeting bodys immediate energy needsFasting phase o Unstored energy from previous meal has been usedbody is withdrawing energy from reserves to meet its immediate energy req Flow of energy controlled by 2 pancreatic hormonesInsulin lots in cephalicabsorptive phaseo Promotes use of glucose o Conversion of bloodborne fuels to forms that can be stored o Storage of glycogen in livermuscle fat in adipose tissue protein in muscleCephalic lower levels of bloodborne fuelAbsorptive minimize increasing levels of bloodborne fuels usestore themGlucagon high in fasting phase o Low levels of insulin Glucose saved for brain cells doesnt req insulin to enterGluconeogenesis conversion of glycogenprotein into glucose o High levels of glucagonRelease of free fatty acids from adipose tissue used as main fuel 012345613789620124 Conversion of free fatty acids to ketones used by muscles later brain 33612011123045016723831191383314016718111391031612391913833238A15238B3321CD3332382321 Theories of hungerEating Set PointsPeople attribute hunger to o presence of energy deficit o view eating as means by which energy resources of body returned to optimal levelAfter mealo energy resources assumed to be near set pointdecline Energy falls below set point
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