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Mid term notes - FINAL.doc

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Eleanor Pontoriero

Mid term notes Issues and Problems in Defining magic Russell;;it differentiates from societies, cultures and countries;;He doesnt want ppl to think that only things defined by science are true - there are dif roads to reality magic isn't any lower on the scale then science is;;Theories grew up from sorcery through religion to science Kieck;;Hard to define bcd magic involves practical manipulation of the world/to define some- thing as magical depends on the type of power in which in invokes&relies on divine action or manifestation of power of nature then it is not magic/magic is an overall crossing point where the exploitation of natural forces & the invocation of demonic powers intersect/depending on the time frame it was considered natural/*cant judge the rationality of magic on own standards bcd everyone has different rationality(however things are considered to be rational if they are consis- tent with prevailing knowledge)rational in their own time and place/you can only define magic in regards to the time and place that it is taking place Magic-Russell;;thought do magic as a scholasiticion- a method of inquiry,not a school of thought / high (of natural phenomena) and low magic (simply Sorter) _______________________________________________________ SorceryRussell;;you dont need a special knowledge to do it, tou just need to want something that you cant have/low magic; beneficial and maleficent(harmful)/Mechanical/invokes spirits/Oldest element in wc / formed from pagen rlg and chris heresy/Assumes cosmos is a whole with hidden connections - controls and influences the connections to get results/Simple sorc ; mechanical performance of an action to produce another/When simple is beneficial is ac- cepted by soc; helps define/sustain soc values/explains scary events,phenomena/gives individual power in mystifying the world/serves as system of justice, righteous wrongs/getting even/Com- plex sorc ; aid of spirits (dif from rlg bcd it compels,force, not implores,beg)/Malevolent sorc (showing a wish to do evil to others) ; helping affirm boundaries in a soc / enhances solidarity by demonizing opponents/In this you are exploiting spirits not worship like diabolism/It performed useful functions ; this is why it did not fade/Sorcery is based on the assumption that the cosmos is a whole ; the connections are hidden in natural phenomena Kieck;; black or harmful magic/difficult to distinguish from protective and medical magic/ex- ample: using love magic to regain husband’s affection is constraining his will and therefore, evil/Techniques were the same medical or protective magic, potions, charms, amulets/Difference between positive and negative magic lay in the purposes they served/Involved sympathetic mag- ic/Like healing magic, in Sorcery, the power of herbs is enhanced by the use of charms/curses ut- tered in secrecy, victim would not know about them Diabolical (demonic) Magic Russell;; ForAlexander and Russell Diabolical and natural magic are the two forms of sorcery/Complex sorcery/it implores spirits/demons for help/this idea developed over time/blurring of sorcery with demonology, characteristics assigned to demon might be assigned to a witch/Graeco-Roman thought began the closely linking of sorcery with demonology that became the dominant characteristic of European witchcraft Kieck;; Invokes evil spirits, rests upon a network of religious beliefs/Perversion of religion, turned away from God and towards demons/Divination can be seen as being communicated by demons (Augustine) Natural Magic Russell;; Form of sorcery, related to folklore/Witch of folklore is a sorcerer as- sociated with powers of nature, has aspects of nature within herself/Natural magic for them is high magic/Witch&sorcerer exerts power over nature using hidden relationships found within the kosmos. Kieck;; Exploits “occult” powers within nature, branch of medieval science/branch of medieval science/Power is occult if it is grounded in symbolic feature of powerful object /Power in nature that is little know and arouses awe/Ex. Power of plant to cure ailment may derive not from inter- nal structure but from external source, emanation from stars/These powers were occult and natu- ral magic was the science of these powers/Examines influences of specifics that flowed from dis- tant reaches of cosmos/s eeks the hidden realties of nature\ __________________________sect 2 Medical magic(use of herbs/animals)::relation to natural magic/materials are simple; herbs, plants, animal parts/sometimes specific/healing virtues from animal parts;each organ has a func- tion/if something was curative, was known through experience not theatrical explanation/ fea- tures of medical magic - 1.prepping a drug involves doing specific taboos to keep the substance pure i.e. Sustain from sexual contact before gathering herbs 2.chose of healing ingredients dic- tated by symbolic consideration of sympathetic magic - animals that have strength/speed/ferocity preferred over gentle beasts 3.getting medical procedures sometimes imply explicit&implicit at- tention to the effects of heavenly bodies - pick a herb before sunrise 4. Use of mysterious(arcane) lang suggest ingredients/process is mysterious - recipe for sciatica reads“dialanga dracumino di- azinsebri, equally much” // linked to religion&not fully distinguished from science Charms:Prayers,blessings,Adjuration::authority of charms enhanced by ascription to saint;sometime woven with apocryphal story/chris monks began writing new charms in Latin then translated into vernacular languages/Prayers;requests directed to God,Christ, Mary or a Saint-some chris liturgy used out of context,lords prayers,hail mary i.e. To keep cattle from harm“Agios x3”/Blessings; wishes addressed wit patients/form“may god bless/heal you” reli- gious rather than magical/pray after patient heal to express gratitude to god,saints/can be used alone side magic but not inherently magic/Adjuration, exorcism;;attention to the sickness, worm, demon, agent responsible/Enhanced by appeal to persons, things or events that are sacred therefore powerful/sickness is commanded in the “name” of or by the “prayer” of something holy/sacred events in bible are a source to help healing process/exorcism took longer than charms bcd of liturgical elements i.e. Man seized by demon should be given a potion of the scrapings from a parchment of the Gospel of John along with holy water/ Incantations;;less com- mon more explicitly magical /Articulate the meaning of sympathetic magic/i.e.Apregnant wom- an should
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