review sheet 3- essay.docx

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Eleanor Pontoriero

Essay 1) Jewish, Msuslim and/or Christian perspective(s) and UN HR Judaism and HR Novak, David Religious human Rights in Judaic Texts. Different sources: religious texts vs legal Relation between rights and duties in Jewish scripture: not equivalent to modern secular human rights, because it is based on commandments and obligations Based on reciprocity and golden rule, i.e. what is hateful, do not do to others (hillel) (194) Religious foundation is the divine source of human rights If you look in Jewish scripture there isnt any specific term that is the same meaning as human rights as we understand it in the modern context (universal, inalienable, equality) Divine laws cannot be changed, human laws can Divine law can more easily be abused Novaks view as a conservative jewish person is that the religious source of rights gives the moral backbone to the types of rights that we have in the social political sphere The two rights are distinct but related He accepts the three perspectives of monotheistic religions: Christian, jewish and muslim -the commandments in these three traditions are being the moral basis The practice of their religion is the source of all other practices but for secularists religion is tolerated tastes Novaks idea of a social contract of giving up something in order to protect something else in society He says human society is experienced as a natural phenomenon as part of the order of creation, divine creation. So society cannot be an artificial construct, it has to be part of a divine order created by a divine entity There is too much emphasis in this social contract view on individualism, which is too highly prized in democratic societies The need for society is need for the fulfillment of selfish individual ends He has a problem in assuming that the human individual is sovereign rather than God There is no sense of right between God and human, just moral obligations. God does not owe you anything He invokes the sense of social justice based on the prophets: Isaiah: caring for the poor, the widowed, the orphans, the oppressed Secularism: human beings take the place of God (his critique of humanism) Commandment: thou shall not kill (religious) In the UNDHR: article three: everyone has the right to life (legal) Christianity & HR - Motlmann reading - goal of christian theology is to address the conflict between individual rights and social responsibilities to others (in terms of creating a socially just society and global community) - Rights begin at conception, and this can tie into a divine creator - Non-Christian are created equal because they are still created in the image of God - So its Christian language but respecting others - Theology must be human centered on socially just communities - The point is that there is the idea of a human centered theology - Based on indivisibility of rights and duties - Aims to restore human dignity by addressing injustice (economic, political, social) - Addresses imitations of secular, liberal humanism and liberalism (and its emphasis on individualism) by fostering universal community in diversity - strives for just balance between self-determination and responsibility toward future generations (10-12, 16). - role of the church to educate about human rights and violations and to urge members to influence government - It acknowledges human rights advocacy as a task for the church - Its not a political responsibility, but divine - Big emphasis on restoring human dignity in the image of God - Its understood as a responsibility given to christians from the divine but also must be realized concretely in the social and political sphere - Secularism in terms of its limitation is its over-emphasis of the individual and not moral responsibility to work towards a morally just society - Limitations of UN documents are limited: they do not create true humanity between human beings - Hes addressing the gap between whats on paper and what actually happens - Humans are to till and keep the earth - but this is misinterpreted into pillaging and destruction - The rights on non-human creation must be respected as well - Relates to the 3 generation of rights. - Sin as a human rights violation fueled by national arrogance, imperialism and ideological abuse - Reconciliation to restore justice Islam & Human Rights from Hassan Limitations of UN system Assumptions grounding UN declaration of Human rights i.e. secular humanist European and cultural relativism re: human rights i.e. significance of Berohis argument Quran as magna cart of human rights: right to life, right to respect, right to justice,right to freedom, right to privacy, right to acquire knowledge, right to leave ones homeland under oppressive condition, right to develop ones aesthetic sensibilities and enjoy bounties created by God, right to sustenance, right to work, right to the good life Division between rights accorded to women in Quranic Islam and cultural and historical biases damage womens status Brohi is someone who tries to emphasis the gap between Islam and Human rights to the point where they cannot be joined She needs to refer to the specific geography, not everyone lives in a country where there are constant human rights abuses, difference between Islam in democratic vs theocratic countries UNDHR is an international product, at least 50 representatives from all over the world historically there has always been a tension between those who privilege a dogmatic, absolutist interpretation of the tradition and those who take a more rationalist view of islam challenge to sift through the scripture and make sense of it for this time and place in history When the western colonizing countries left, they left institutions and there was a carry-over, which would be taken over by western educated elites who would have assimilated to western ideals, which created a crisis
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