RLG100Y1 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Synoptic Gospels, Historical Criticism, Puritans

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1 Feb 2017
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CHRISTIANITY
Jesus:
- born a Jew around 4BCE
- literate, could quote and argue scripture
- influenced by John the Baptist (desert prophet, focused on preparation for Judgement
day)
- baptised and began ministry at 30, tried as criminal at the age of 33 (Romans)
- he was a historical person, Romans kept records
Gospels
- Mark
o The first gospel
o Around 65-70 CE
o Written around time of zealots revolt
- Matthew
o About 10 years after Mark
o Focussed on resurrection
- Luke
o Written to the gentiles
*these three are the synoptic gospels. They are written to inform the latter generations
about the life of Jesus. They include stories of Jesus (life, death, miracles, and parables)
- John
o Written to the gentiles
o Theological essays
o Looked at Christianity as a sect of Judaism
o 30 years after Luke
Paul
- wrote of practice and discipline of the faith
- preached to the Gentiles and believed Jesus was the Messiah
- wrote about the church in this world, brought it into the realm of an institution
- Christianity includes all of earth’s people
Rome
- Jews were expelled from Palestine, but Christianity was already separate
- They didn’t participate in the fight against Rome and were allowed to live there still
- Romans decided they had to participate in civil practices like worshipping the emperor
and sacrifices
- Constantine believed Christianity helped him win a war, and he declared it was the
religion of the Roman Empire
- This brought Christianity to the forefront of public life, from a positive view to a negative
view
- Membership expanded greatly
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- Brought it out of the home and into the public eye; churches were established
Doctrine
- Since there were many gospels and ideas of the doctrines of Christianity, they narrowed it
down
- They chose the four gospels and other books that are related to the apostles and orthodox
- The collection of all the books that didn’t make it into the New Testament is the
Apocrypha (Doubtful authenticity, not considered to be in a particular canon)
- There were counsels held to determine a statement of the Christian faith
- Came up with the Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed
Schism
- Constantine brought Rome’s capital to Byzantine, renaming it Constantinople
- This destabilized Rome and brought Christianity to a new location
- Constantinople thrived as a center for trade, fine art and culture (metropolis)
- There was an argument between Eastern and Western Christianity on whether the Holy
Spirit was from the Father and the Son, or just the Son
- Took place in 1054 CE
- Eastern:
o Well established, rooted in Constantinople
o Monasticism rose, silence and prayer the central way of learning
o grew because they were converting/approaching people using their own language
(Benedict 4th century)
o looked toward Greek thinking
o Many paintings, elaborate churches and alters
- Western:
o Byzantium took over Rome, causing a collapse of the political systems, setting
back western Christianity
o Lagged behind eastern in terms of development because of this collapse
o Pope had all the power, secular and non-secular
o Didn’t stray from traditions, stuck to Roman and Latin roots
o Eventually spread throughout Europe, due to connections with leaders
Crusades
- Took place starting in 1095 CE
- Because of the schism, the Pope looked for a way to try to unite the two opposing sides
of Christianity
- By giving them one common enemy and the job of ridding the Holy Land (Palestine) of
the Muslims, he was for the most part, successful
The Holy Roman Empire
- In the year 800, the Pope realised he needed help from a secular state, so he asked
Charlemagne for help (The Frankish King)
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