•In Medina, Muhammad established the first Islamic commonwealth: a truly theocratic state, headed by a prophet
believed to be of divine inheritance.
•While in Medina, Muhammad successfully united 2 rival tribes (Aws + Khazraj).
•While in Medina, he also created the Medina Constitution.
oThis regulated relations with Jews and Christians
oInvented Shura: “Islamic participatory decision making.”
oClarified what it means to be a Muslim and what a Muslim community is.
•In the Qur’an the people of Medina are called “Ansar” (‘helpers’) because they were the 1st supporters and protectors
of Islam and the Prophet.
The Conversion of Mecca
•Battle of Badr.
oBattles and warfare.
o2 Goals: (1) To create, establish and protect the Muslim Umma; (2) To return to Mecca.
•The Caliphate had a worldly as well as a religious dimension from the beginning. As a successor of the Prophet, the
caliph was a religious leader. At the same time, he was also the chief or administrative head of the community, as
well as the amir or commander of the Muslims in times of war and peace.
Prophets and Messengers
•According to the Qur’an and Islamic tradition, God operates through prophets and messengers who convey God’s will
in revealed scriptures and through prophets and messengers.
•Qur’an = “Recitation”. Believed to be the unadulterated word of God. (not words of a prophet)
•The primordial Koran, which exists in heaven on a “well-preserved tablet”, manifested itself in this book which “only
the purified” are permitted to touch and to recite.
•Text in Qur’an contains solutions for all problems of the world but there are “unknown divine mysteries” hidden in
the sequence of its verses and in the arrangements of its letters.
•One difficulty for non-Muslim reader: order of the text is not chronological. Sacred texts were put together in the days
of the caliph- the chapters (suras) were arranged in the descending length.
•114 suras in total- they have brief titles which are not originally part of the original sura.
•Each single verse of the Qur’an is called ayat “sign” or “miracle”.
•Teaches that man is superior to all spirits and angels, for God breathed into Adam “from His breath”
•Man’s first sin, induced by eating a certain grain, was not contagious contrary to Christian doctrine of original sin.
Teaches that human beings are good by nature and change due to the influence of their environment.
•Muslims’ desire was to recite the Qur’an as beautifully as possible, and the art of tilawat, the proper musical
recitation, developed into a high art.
•Qur’an is primarily a book of religious and moral principles and exhortations, and it not a legal document.
•Most important legal enactment and general reforms of the Qur’an have been about women and slavery
•Qur’an improved the status of the woman in several directions by the most basic is the fact that the woman was given
a full-fledged personality.
•The woman has been granted the same rights over man as man has over his wife, except that man, bring the earning
partner, is a degree higher.
•Unlimited polygamy was strictly regulated and the number of wives was limited to 4.
•The Qur’an accepts the institution of slavery on the legal plane- but at same time every legal and moral effort was
made to free the slaves and to create a milieu where slavery ought to disappear.
•Qur’an also tells the Muslim that if a slave wants to purchase their freedom, they must allow him to do so
•During lifetime of Mohammad the Qur’an had been committed to memory by many people and recited in prayers.
•Some evidence in earliest generation of Islam that people were opposed to any interpretations of the Qur’an.