rsm260 final cheatsheet

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Department
Rotman Commerce
Course Code
RSM260H1
Professor
Katherine A.De Celles

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Description
RSM260 Cheat Sheet – Yefan Chen  GROUPS Formal Groupsfacilitatetheachievementoforggoalswhichincludestaskforcesandcommittees. Informal Groupsemergeinresponsetocommoninterestsofthemembers –theycanhelporhurtanorg. Stages of Group Development – Forming(testingwaters),Storming(conflictandroles),Norming(resolveissue,developconsensus,interdependenceand comprisesarereachedandthegroupismorecohesive)Performing(creativityandmutual assistance),Adjourning(parties,emotional support,etc.) GROUP STRUCTURE: 1)GROUP SIZE (3-20 members)2)DIVERSE groupsarguemore but havemore creativity 4)Norms 5)Roles 6)Status TypesofTasks: Additive–themorepeople,thebetterperformance(likebuildingahouse),or Disjunctive (Perfdependsonthatofthebestmember,moreppl can leadtobetterperf),orConjunctive (Perflimitedbythepoorestperformer,likeanassemblyline.Larger=worse). Actual Performance = Potential Perf – Process Losses(Problemsmotivating/coordinatinglargergroups) GroupNorms – collectiveexpectationsaboutbehaviour; Peopleevencomplywithnormstheydon’tagreewithbecauseitprovidesregularityandpredictability. Theyincludedresscodes,rewardallocation,andperformancenorms. Roles –positions ingroupsthathaveasetofexpectedbehaviours. Designated rolesareprescribedtodividelabour,Emergent Roles naturallydeveloptomeet social needs –e.g.classclown.Roleambiguityoccurswhenthetask isunclear,oftenduetoorgfactors,therolesender,orthefocal person.Leadstostress, reducedcommitment,lowerperf,andintentionstoquit. RoleConflicthappenswhenoneisplacedwithincompatibleresponsibilities. Intrasender roleconflict occurswhenarolesenderprovidesincompatibleexpectationstothedoer(takeiteasy,butdoall this). Intersenderroleconflicthappenswhenthere are differentexpectationsforthe roleoccupant. InterroleConflicthappenswhensomeoneistooinvolvedindifferentaspectsofthebusiness. Person-roleconflict happenswhenthedemandsoftheroleareincompatiblewiththepersonalityorskillsoftheoccupant. Status – therank,social position,orprestigeaccordedtogroupmembers.Formal statussystemshavetitlesandsymbols,whileinformal isjustrecognition. Group Cohesiveness –thedegreetowhichthegroupisattractivetoitsmembers.Under extreme threat,increasedcohesivenesswon’thelp, successincreases cohesiveness, diversitydoesn’tmatteraslongasideasareagreed,the smallerthebetter, toughness of initiationincreasescohesivenessaswell. More cohesivenessleadstomoreparticipation, conformity, andsuccess (ifgoalsalignwiththeorg;sometimesproductivitycanbelow,hassimilarproductivity) Cohesiveness is the best predictorof performance, andcan be increased bysmallergroups, more time together, admission difficulty, competition, rewards, etc. Social Loafing –thetendencytowithholdphysical orintellectual effortwhenperformingagrouptask. It’samotivational problem thathastwoforms: a. Free Ridereffect–peoplelowertheireffort attheexpense oftheirfellowmembersdoingall thework,or b. Suckereffect–lowereffortbecause othersare‘free-riding’,tomaintainequality To counterit: Makeindividualperformancemorevisible,makesureworkisinteresting,increasefeelingsofindispensability,andIncrease feedback+rewards LEADERSHIP Leadership istheinfluencethatparticularindividualsexertonthegoal achievementofothers –itshouldenhanceproductivity,innovation,satisfaction,AND commitment.Strategicleadersarehelpful inturbulenttimesbecausetheyanticipatechanges. Managerscanholdleadershiprolesbutnotbealeader. Traits – ind.Characteristicslikeattributes, ability,andpersonality.Thoselinkedtoleadershipinclude:intelligence,emotional stability,agreeableness,etc. The TraittheoryofleadershippredictsleaderEMERGENCEbetterthanleaderEffectiveness! Behavioural Leadership –leadersaren’tborn, buttrained. It’sabouttheirleadershipstyleandwhattheydo. Consideration –theextent aleaderisapproachableandshowspersonal concernandrespect foremployees. Initiating Structure –thedegreeaeladerconcentrateson groupgoal attainment;stressesprocedures;assignsroles,scheduleswork. ^Bothcontribute positivelytomotivation,satisfaction,andleadereffectiveness.However,  HardWork/Pressure structure,IntrinsicallySatisfying noneClearJobMethods  ConsiderationEmployeesLackKnowledge  Structure ContingentLeaderReward Behaviour: positivelyrelatedtoemployees’perceptions (trust), attitudes(satis. Andcommitment),andbehaviour(effort, performance, OCB).LeaderpunishmentBehaviourledtofavourable employeeperceptions,non-contingentledtobadoutcomes. Situational Leadership:Effectivenessofleadershipstyledependsonthesetting(Charofemployees,natureoftask,charoftheorganization) a. FIEDLER’s CONTINGENCY THEORY: LeadershiporientationandGroupeffectivenessdependsonthesituation. Least Preferred Co-Workeris measuredbyaskingtheleadertodescribesomeonewithwhom hehashadahardtimegettingthejobdone.Ifit’sHIGH(favourable),thenheisa Relationship-OrientedLeader.Ifit’sLOW(unfavourable),heisaTaskLeader. This is an attitude, notbehaviour(likeconsideration andinitiating structure). a. SituationalFavourableness depends on: Leader-MemberRelations,TaskStructure,andPositionPower b. Taskorientationisgoodwhen thesituationisfavourableorextremelyunfavourable.Relationshipisgoodforthemiddle4-7. c. REVISED:CognitiveResourceTheory–howintelligence/experiencecontributetoleadership.Intelligenceismosteffectivewhentheleaderis directive,thegroupsupportshim,andit’slow-stress.Underhighstress,workexperienceismoreimportant. b. HOUSE’S PATH-GOAL THEORY: thesituationsunderwhichleaderBehavioursaremosteffective.Theeffectiveleaderformsaconnectionbetween employeegoalsandorggoals.Leadersmustmakerewardsdependentonperformance,providesupportthroughguidance,andhavebehaviourthatis satisfyingtoothers. a. LeaderBehaviour: Directive(likestructure),Supportive(seeconsideration),Participative,Achievement-Oriented(encouragingtowardsa highlevel ofgoal accomplishment,confidentthatgoalscanbemet) b. Highneed-achieversneedAOLeadership,LowtaskAbilitieslikeDirective,clearandroutineworkdiscouragesdirective/participative, as opposedtochallengingandambiguous.Frustratingjobsshouldhavesupportiveleadership. Betterpredictorofjobsatisfaction then performance Participative Leadership –involvingemployeesinmakingwork-relateddecisions.Itcanincreaseemployeemotivation(addstoautonomy  satisfaction,enriched jobs).Moreparticipationleadstohigherqualitydecisions,andthey empoweremployeestotakedirectactiontosolveproblems.Involvementalsoleadsto Acceptance(fairness). Increasessatisfaction. Cons: toomuchtimeandenergytomakedecisions,lossofpower,andlackofreceptivityorKnowledge(whentheleaderisnottrustedorworkenvisbad) Autocratic/Directive Leadership –Individual controloverallgroupdecisionsw/ofeedbackfrom others.Theydictatetheworkmethods.Canbeeffectivewhen quickdecisionsneedtobemade,orwhenitisstressful. Highproductivity. Leader-MemberExchangeTheory–Focusesonthequalityoftherelationshipthatdevelopsbetweenaleaderandemployee.Effectiveleadershipprocessesresult if thereisahighqualityrelationship. a. HighQualityLMXinvolvehighmutual influenceandobligation,aswell astrust,respect,andloyalty.Theyprovideemployeeswithchallengingtasksand opportunities,greaterlatitude/discretion,task-relatedresources,andrecognition. b. LowQualityrelationships/LowLMXinvolvelowtrust,respect,andobligation.Employeesdoonlywhattheyneedto,notbeyond. c. HigherLMXisrelatedtohighersatisfaction,orgcommitment,OCB,roleclarity,jobperformance,lowerroleconflictandturnover. Transactional Leadership -basedonastraightforwardexchangerelationshipbetweentheleaderandfollowers.Involvescontingentrewardbehaviour(e.g. dothis task well,rewardwithmoney),andmanagementbyexception(takecorrectiveactionbeforeproblemsarecreated). Theyclarifypathtogoals,andreward behaviour. VeryROUTINE,canbehardtho. RSM260 Cheat Sheet – Yefan Chen  Transformational Leadership -providesfollowerswithanewvisionthatinstilstruecommitment.He/Shechangestheattitudesandbeliefsoffollowersand motivatestoachieveperformancebeyondexpectations.Therearefourkeydimensions: 1. Intellectual Stimulation–challengesassumptions,takerisks,novel andcreativeideas(Apple) 2. Individualized Consideration- havingconcernfor personal needsofemployees(military) 3. Inspirational Motivation–communicateinspiritingideas,stimulateenthusiasm,highstandards,andMEANINGforthetask athand 4. Charisma–idealizedinfluence,ortheabilitytocommandstrongloyaltyandhavepotential forstronginfluenceuponfollowers.Thisis themost importantaspectoftransformationalleadership.Itofferstheemotional aspectofleadership. Althoughcharismamayn
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