Chpt 7 Training
The term training is often used casually to describe almost any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning
among its members-: However, many experts distinguish between training, which tends to be more narrowly
focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns, and development, which, as you learned in
Chapter 5, tends to be oriented more toward broadening an individual's skills for future responsibilities
• Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members.
• Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns.
• Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an Individual’s skills for the future responsibilities.
The psychology of learning (Pavlov’s dogs)
• Instincts (e.g., “fixed-action” patterns)
• Classical Conditioning
• Unconditioned Stimulus – response [food and salivating unconditioned stimuli and response]
• Unconditioned stimulus-conditioned Stimulus-response [food unconditioned – bell conditioned stimulus and
salivating conditioned response]
• Operant Conditioning
• Reward-punishment learning [positive reinforcement / negative reinforcement --- positive punishment/
Punishment is defined as a consequence that follows an operant response that decreases (or attempts to decrease) the likelihood
of that response occurring in the future.
In an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future, an operant response is followed by the presentation
of an aversive stimulus. This is positive punishment.
If you stroke a cat's fur in a manner that the cat finds unpleasant, the cat may attempt to bite you. Therefore, the presentation of
the cat's bite will act as a positive punisher and decrease the likelihood that you will stroke the cat in that same manner in the
In an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future, an operant response is followed by the removal of
an appetitive stimulus. This is negative punishment.
When a child "talks back" to his/her mother, the child may lose the privilege of watching her favorite television program.
Therefore, the loss of viewing privileges will act as a negative punisher and decrease the likelihood of the child talking back in
• Social Learning
Social learning theory is a perspective that states thpeople learn within a social context. It is facilitated through
concepts such as modeling and observational learning. People, especially children, learn from the environment and
seek acceptance from society by learning through influential models. Social learning theory is a perspective that
states that social behavior (any type of behavior