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SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Phaon, Epikleros, Hieros Gamos

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CLA219: Women in Antiquity
Tuesday Oct 23, 2012
Lecture 6 - Women in Marriage and Divorce
Oct 9lecture notes
what is sappho?
owhich literally means woman from lesbos
o19th century came up with lesbians
otribade - noun means “to rub”
martial - epigrams
olucretia leads to downfall of Roman empire
otheban riddle - edipus sphinx - wto ppl who should have
sex w/ each other
aposiopesis - to break off - literary device - erotic literature
oused in Lucian, Dialogues of the Courtesans
Sappho - 2nd half of the 7th cent. BC
dominate male - femaile engaging in sex w/o men is a big deal
it is said that sappho married kerkylos andros - dick allcock
from the isle of man
it was imagine that Sappho was the head of a school
Thiasos - a group of females that initiated girls into sexual
this doesn’t come from Sappho’s work
Sappho and Phaon
ophaon was a ferryman and not very handsome
oaphrodite took a trip with him and he recognized her
divinity and didn’t change her
oaprodite gave him a potion
ohe gave it to sappho
oeventually Phaon stopped wanting her
oand she jumped off Leucadian cliff
among greek times we find the theme of ppl falling in love,
once more, again
when calling a god,
oremind the god that you have called them in the past and
they have helped you
1. To Aphrodite Fr.1.G2. When I look at you (Fr.311.G)3. Anactoria
(Fr. 16. G)4. Parting (FR. 94. G)5. Remembering the girl Atthis (Fr.
96.G)6. The wedding of Hector and Andromache (Fr. 44. G)
Lecture 6

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CLA219: Women in Antiquity
Tuesday Oct 23, 2012
Lecture 6 - Women in Marriage and Divorce
Statistics in Antiquity
In Greece:
Average age of death for men was 45
Men 35
A third of all babies would be dead in a single year
In Rome:
Half of all babies would die before their first year
Not illegal to kill your baby - you could expose it
Leave in wilderness
Or somewhere someone would find it
Often girls exposed over boys, because boys are prized over girls as they are heirs. Females
just cost money
To feed, bring up, provide dowry
Aristotle says there should be a law forbidding the bringing up of disabled children
High mortality between child-bearing age
Growing up as a Girl in Ancient Greece
Quite often girls were less well-nourished than boys
Perhaps the reason they died more often as children because they didn’t get the same food as
Not the same for Egypt or Sparta
If you are healthy and make it through childhood you are educated in domestic skills
Wool-working, cooking, how to run a household, all depends on a social class
Upper classes would have huge household whereas poorer families the woman may have to
work outside the house
Normally illiteracy much wider spread among females
In Roman aristocracy their girls might also be educated in writing, reading and philosophy, but
perhaps not on the same level as boys
Women in Greece
Menstruation begins between 13-15
Later, probably because malnourished
Once you have your first period you are a woman - whereas it takes longer and more
complicated to become a man
Augustus writes a law that the minimum age for a bride should be 12
In Sparta it was recommended that the girls be at least 18
Never a legal adult
Always under the guardianship of a male
Some exceptions: Augustus granted freedom of guardianship who had born three children
If you were a freed woman you would have had to give birth to four to reach that status
In Greece we have strict separation between the oikios and the polis
Xenophon’s oikenomicus
Socrates is most famous greek philosopher but he never wrote anything himself

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CLA219: Women in Antiquity
Tuesday Oct 23, 2012
Lecture 6 - Women in Marriage and Divorce
In this text socrates tells of his encounter with Ischomacus who tells socrates how he
trained his young wife to manage his estate
It’s good that she’s so young because she’s still naive and he can shape her and introduce
her to her duties as a wife
When talking about distribution of chores between male and female and how the gods have
created them in such a way that they are complimentary to one another
Yolk often used to describe marriage - has both negative and positive connotation
What is at stake is the legitimacy of children - you must be married
In athens you must be married to an athenian
Need help in old age so must procreate
Man is made better able to endure outside duties; women indoors
Justifies division of labour by physical appropriateness via the gods creation
The guy is courageous, the woman is more worried which is good because she is concerned
with household things
Oikois is a miniature state (polis) - therefore the woman has a very important function
Woman should think of herself as a leaderbee (queen bee?)
Ancient athens has a very strict sexual segregation
Can assume that there was a separate woman’s quarters (perhaps upstairs)
If there was a symposium the wife was not to participate it
Often there was only one entrance and it was near the male quarters and the female area far
away from that
In such events they would have lower-life females present (i.e., prone)
Roman females had somewhat more liberties than Athenian ones
The higher up in society the more confined you were, so for upper class occasions they’d
only go out for religious duties
She should not interact with male strangers
In lower class families women have to contribute
Wool workers, washer women, etc
Having a profession was frowned upon
Widows could remarry, especially when of child-bearing age
Such an age difference between male and females, so this could happen
Marriage was an economic contract
Univira - a woman who was only married once; not a cultural expectation or in the interest
of the state
Rome has a different social situation
Paterfamilias - head of household, father of the family. Father had full power over his
children until his death. Even if the children were adults and married and had own children
they’d still be under the authority of the paterfamilias, who could punish them in any way
Kyros - greek concept of guardian over female
Father in early life, then husband
Given from father to the husband, and her responsibility switches to husbands household
In Rome the female can still be under authority of her father
Concept of paterfamilias and his authority is something you do not find in Greece
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