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Full final exam notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

SOC101 FINAL EXAM NOTES New Society (1, 6, 8, 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20) Society in Question (21, 22) SLDI (3, 5) 1 New Society: Chapter 1 Introducing Sociology The Sociological Explanation of Suicide Emilie Durkheim (French sociologist) suicide is more than an individual act of desperation resulting from psychological disorder, suicide rates are strongly influenced by social forces o Examined association between rates of suicide and rates of psychological disorder in different groups: More women than men in insane asylums, more male suicide women involved more in social relations or family life Jews highest rate of psychological disorder, lowest suicide rate persecution has formed them into a tightly bonded group Suicides occur more frequently in older people more likely to be living alone Married adults half as likely than unmarried adults to commit suicide marriage creates social ties and moral cement o Suicide rates and rates of psychological disorder did not vary proportionately o Rates vary because of differences in degree of social solidarity the more a groups member share beliefs and values, the more social solidarity there is in the group o As the level of social solidarity increases, the suicide rate declines. Then, beyond a certain point it starts to rise 1. Altruistic suicide occur in high solidarity settings, occurs when norms tightly govern behaviour so individual actions are usually in group interest 2. Egoistic suicide lack of integration of the individual into society because of weak social ties 3. Anomic suicide norms governing behaviour are vaguely defined o A persons likelihood of committing suicide decreases with the degree to which he or she is anchored in society Suicide in Canada today: 2 o Difference between Durkheims France and contemporary Canada youth suicide used to be extremely rare and suicide among working age people was uncommon o Rates do not increase steadily with age in Canada Highest among people over the age of 84 o Shared moral principles and strong social ties have decreased since 1960s for canadas youth Religious group attendance decreased Unemployment higher Rate of divorce increased o Level of social solidarity is now lower than it was a few decades ago for young people Less firmly rooted in society Less likely to share moral standards More likely to take their own lives Social Structures Patterns of social relations affect your thoughts, feelings, actions and who you are Social structures relatively stable patterns of social relations Sociologists main task identify and explain the connection between peoples personal troubles and the social structures in which people are embedded 3 levels of social structure: 1. Microstructures o The patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during face to face interaction. o Families, friendship circles, and work associations are all microstructures o The people you know well are likely to know many of the same people 2. Macrostructures o Overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above ones circle of intimates and acquaintances o Include classes, bureaucracies, power systems, such as patriarchy (the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men in most societies 3. Global Structures o Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level 3
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