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Midterm

Sociology notes for test 3

29 Pages
85 Views
Winter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101Y1
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Study Guide
Midterm

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Gender Inequality Textbook Summary
-Gender Inequality is present in 3 areas in Canada
1) The Home
2) The Labour Force
3) Politics
-Gender Inequality Social Stratification Sources
1) Power-capacity to impose your will on others, regardless of any resistance they might
offer.
2) Material well-being-access to the economic resources necessary to pay for food,
clothing, housing and other advantages. Important sources: work-related earnings,
accumulated wealth.
3) Prestige-average evaluation of occupational activities and positions that are arranged in
a hierarchy.
-Liberal Feminism
-gender inequality caused by gender stereotyping and division of work into men and women
jobs.
-achieve gender equality by
1) Remove gender stereotyping and discrimination in education and paid work
2) Change laws so men and women have equal opportunities in the labour force and politics
Marxist Feminists
-gender equality possible once socialism replaces capitalism
Socialist Feminists
-gender inequality caused by the gendered division of labour and its exploitation by
capitalism.
-Social relations that oppress women
1) Classes
2) Patriarchy
Childbearing foundation of gender inequality
Decrease gender inequality by
1)Government subsidized maternal benefits and childcare
2)Equal work for equal pay
-remove gender inequality completely by eradicating male dominance in the education
system, family and the economy.
Multiracial Feminism
-race important in understanding gender inequality
Race, class and gender- Matrix of domination
Help understand gender inequality in 3 ways
1)Consider differences between women in terms of gender inequality
www.notesolution.com
2)Women of certain classes and races dominant over other women
3)Solutions to gender inequality vary to the location of groups of women in matrix
domination.
Separate Spheres
-consequences for women regarding the separation of the public and private spheres
1) work not widely noticed because often don when husbands not around
2) womens skills viewed as biologically determined instead of acquired skills
3) restricting women to home reduces their access to power, prestige and material well
being
4) social evaluation of work done in the home is not high
-2 main responses to these disadvantages
1) try to put dollar value on womens work
2) emphasize women participation into the public sphere
-Reasons why womens labour force participation changed
1) Increase demand for workers in service jobs.
2)Less children being born
3) Increased financial pressures on families.
-Skill undervaluation of female sex-typed occupations concern for 2 reasons
1) wage levels are associated with skill requirements
2)current pay equity policies often ask whether men and women are receiving equal pay for
performing jobs of compariable worth
-Concerns about non-standard work
1) More common, especially among young people and women
2) Offers less security, lower pay and fewer benefits
Explanations of Womens Lower Pay
1)Gender differences in the characteristics that influence pay rates
2)Gender differences in the type of work performed
3)Discrimination
4)Societal devaluation of womens work
Statistical discrimination- employers make decisions about whether to hire and how much a
woman should get paid according to the average characteristics of ALL women.
Womens movements used to improve the status of women
-efforts of womens movements limited by 3 factors
www.notesolution.com
1) groups rely on government funding, so their roles as critics of government policy can be
easily compromised.
2) consensus decision making style can be time consuming- place group at disadvantage
when making quick decisions
3) not all members agree on what is best for women
1980s 3 factors changed interaction between womens groups and government
1)Electoral success of more conservative parties
2)Economic restraint and increased provincial/territorial and private sector
responsibility
3)Dissatisfaction with womens advocacy groups on agendas reflecting concerns of
white/middle class women
Reasons why women are under-represented in Canadian politics
1)Sex role sterotypes-certain characteristics keep women from participating in politics
2)Politics culture male, hostile to womens participation
3)Gatekeeping-women run in ridings where the chance of winning is small
4)Insufficient funds-women make less money, means less money to use for campain
5)Clash between political and family life
Policies that deal with gender inequality in the work place
1)Employment equity- equal treatment of all groups in the paid labour force. Policies
and programs seek to dismantle barriers and alter workplace cultures to create
opportunities for and further the advancement of historically disadvantaged groups.
2)Affirmative action- one aspect of employment equity. Deals with disadvantaged
groups. Sets targets for hiring and promotion of these groups.
-evaluate jobs based on knowledge, complexity, responsibility and skill
Criticisms for equal-pay-for-work0of-equal-value polices
1)Exclude small firms
2)Compare men and women in same firms, dont apply to women in firms where all
female
3)Comparing worth based on existing job descriptions
Correcting the Balance: Women in Politics
-could increase the number of women in politics
1) displaying good intentions
2) reducing economic barriers to winning nominations and running for office
3) recognizing family needs and responsibilities and the social roles of women
4) weakening or eliminating the gatekeeping tradition
5) engaging in affirmative action
6) centralizing decision making in political parties
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Gender Inequality Textbook Summary -Gender Inequality is present in 3 areas in Canada 1) The Home 2) The Labour Force 3) Politics -Gender Inequality Social Stratification Sources 1) Power-capacity to impose your will on others, regardless of any resistance they might offer. 2) Material well-being-access to the economic resources necessary to pay for food, clothing, housing and other advantages. Important sources: work-related earnings, accumulated wealth. 3) Prestige-average evaluation of occupational activities and positions that are arranged in a hierarchy. -Liberal Feminism -gender inequality caused by gender stereotyping and division of work into men and women jobs. -achieve gender equality by 1) Remove gender stereotyping and discrimination in education and paid work 2) Change laws so men and women have equal opportunities in the labour force and politics Marxist Feminists -gender equality possible once socialism replaces capitalism Socialist Feminists -gender inequality caused by the gendered division of labour and its exploitation by capitalism. -Social relations that oppress women 1) Classes 2) Patriarchy Childbearing foundation of gender inequality Decrease gender inequality by 1) Government subsidized maternal benefits and childcare 2) Equal work for equal pay -remove gender inequality completely by eradicating male dominance in the education system, family and the economy. Multiracial Feminism -race important in understanding gender inequality Race, class and gender- Matrix of domination Help understand gender inequality in 3 ways 1) Consider differences between women in terms of gender inequality www.notesolution.com 2) Women of certain classes and races dominant over other women 3) Solutions to gender inequality vary to the location of groups of women in matrix domination. Separate Spheres -consequences for women regarding the separation of the public and private spheres 1) work not widely noticed because often don when husbands not around 2) womens skills viewed as biologically determined instead of acquired skills 3) restricting women to home reduces their access to power, prestige and material well being 4) social evaluation of work done in the home is not high -2 main responses to these disadvantages 1) try to put dollar value on womens work 2) emphasize women participation into the public sphere -Reasons why womens labour force participation changed 1) Increase demand for workers in service jobs. 2)Less children being born 3) Increased financial pressures on families. -Skill undervaluation of female sex-typed occupations concern for 2 reasons 1) wage levels are associated with skill requirements 2)current pay equity policies often ask whether men and women are receiving equal pay for performing jobs of compariable worth -Concerns about non-standard work 1) More common, especially among young people and women 2) Offers less security, lower pay and fewer benefits Explanations of Womens Lower Pay 1) Gender differences in the characteristics that influence pay rates 2) Gender differences in the type of work performed 3) Discrimination 4) Societal devaluation of womens work Statistical discrimination- employers make decisions about whether to hire and how much a woman should get paid according to the average characteristics of ALL women. Womens movements used to improve the status of women -efforts of womens movements limited by 3 factors www.notesolution.com
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