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Sociology notes for test 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

Gender Inequality Textbook Summary -Gender Inequality is present in 3 areas in Canada 1) The Home 2) The Labour Force 3) Politics -Gender Inequality Social Stratification Sources 1) Power-capacity to impose your will on others, regardless of any resistance they might offer. 2) Material well-being-access to the economic resources necessary to pay for food, clothing, housing and other advantages. Important sources: work-related earnings, accumulated wealth. 3) Prestige-average evaluation of occupational activities and positions that are arranged in a hierarchy. -Liberal Feminism -gender inequality caused by gender stereotyping and division of work into men and women jobs. -achieve gender equality by 1) Remove gender stereotyping and discrimination in education and paid work 2) Change laws so men and women have equal opportunities in the labour force and politics Marxist Feminists -gender equality possible once socialism replaces capitalism Socialist Feminists -gender inequality caused by the gendered division of labour and its exploitation by capitalism. -Social relations that oppress women 1) Classes 2) Patriarchy Childbearing foundation of gender inequality Decrease gender inequality by 1) Government subsidized maternal benefits and childcare 2) Equal work for equal pay -remove gender inequality completely by eradicating male dominance in the education system, family and the economy. Multiracial Feminism -race important in understanding gender inequality Race, class and gender- Matrix of domination Help understand gender inequality in 3 ways 1) Consider differences between women in terms of gender inequality 2) Women of certain classes and races dominant over other women 3) Solutions to gender inequality vary to the location of groups of women in matrix domination. Separate Spheres -consequences for women regarding the separation of the public and private spheres 1) work not widely noticed because often don when husbands not around 2) womens skills viewed as biologically determined instead of acquired skills 3) restricting women to home reduces their access to power, prestige and material well being 4) social evaluation of work done in the home is not high -2 main responses to these disadvantages 1) try to put dollar value on womens work 2) emphasize women participation into the public sphere -Reasons why womens labour force participation changed 1) Increase demand for workers in service jobs. 2)Less children being born 3) Increased financial pressures on families. -Skill undervaluation of female sex-typed occupations concern for 2 reasons 1) wage levels are associated with skill requirements 2)current pay equity policies often ask whether men and women are receiving equal pay for performing jobs of compariable worth -Concerns about non-standard work 1) More common, especially among young people and women 2) Offers less security, lower pay and fewer benefits Explanations of Womens Lower Pay 1) Gender differences in the characteristics that influence pay rates 2) Gender differences in the type of work performed 3) Discrimination 4) Societal devaluation of womens work Statistical discrimination- employers make decisions about whether to hire and how much a woman should get paid according to the average characteristics of ALL women. Womens movements used to improve the status of women -efforts of womens movements limited by 3 factors
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