Sociology: Systematic study of human behavior in social context (Comte).
Sociological Perspective: Examines link between social events and social relations (Durkheim’s suicide theory).
Sociological Imagination: Seeing connection between personal troubles and social structures (C. Wright Mills).
Postindustrialism:An economy that no longer relates on heavy industry, technology driven.
Globalization: Formerly separately economies, states and cultures become tied.
Culture: Sum of socially transmitted ideas and practices that people create to overcome problem (Gretzky).
Ethnocentrism: Judging another culture exclusively by the standards of one’s own.
Cultural Relativism: Belief that all elements of all cultures should be respected equally.
Bureaucracy:Alarge, impersonal organization composed of clearly deﬁned positions of hierarchy.
Sanctions: Used to ensure conformity to cultural guidelines (positive = rewards and negative = punishments).
Rights Revolution: Process by which socially excluded groups have struggled to win equal rights (women).
Countercultures: Subversive subcultures that oppose dominant values and seek to replace them (hippies).
Emotional Management: Involves people obeying “feeling rules” and responding appropriately (Hochschild).
Emotion Labour: Part of many people’s jobs (McDonald’s working saying “have a great day”).
Exchange Theory: Social interaction involves trade in attention and other valued resources.
Rational Choice Theory: Interacting people weigh the beneﬁts and costs of their interaction.
Role Distancing: When people think a role they are playing is embarrassing or beneath them.
Ethnomethodology: Methods ordinary people use to make sense (often unconsciously) of what others do.
Looking-Glass Self: Reactions of others are a mirror in which we see ourselves (Cooley - symbolic interaction).
Taking the Role ofAnother: Anticipating in advance how others will see and react to you.
Groupthink: The tendency to conform to group norms despite individual distrust.
BystanderApathy: The more the bystanders the less responsible one feels, therefore no bystanders help.
Dyad: Relationship between two social units, both parties intensity absorbed in relationship (marriage, ﬁrms).
Triad: Relationship between three units, intensity is reduced, partner may be out-voted and free-riders possible.
Upward Mobility: Refers to movement up a system of inequality.
Voluntarism: Belief that we alone control our destiny (I think therefore I am).
Latent Function: Unintentional consequence (getting tough on crime results in more violence).
Roleless Status: Being unable to contribute to society (being retired).
Hidden Curriculum: Informal teaching that helps ensure students’integration into society (raising hand).
The Protestant Ethic: If you live modestly and work diligently your will live better.
What was Durkheim’s Theory of Suicide?
• Agroup’s level of social solitary is determined by the frequency with which its members interact and the
degree to which they share beliefs, values and morals.
• Suicide rates are lowest at intermediate levels of social solidarity and highest at low and high levels.
Jewish, women and the married are less likely to commit suicide because they are anchored to society.
What are Durkheim’s three types of suicide?
• Anomic (low solidarity) - feel disconnected from governing norms (does not ﬁt in).
• Egoistic (low solidarity) - lack of integration because of weak social ties (less rooted into society).
• Altruistic (high solidarity) - norms tightly govern behaviour, best interests for the group (solider).
What are the different levels of social structure?
• Micro - Patterns of intimate social relations, face-to-face interaction (families, friendships).
• Macro - Patterns of social relations outside one’s circle (class relations, power systems).
• Global - Patterns of social relations outside and above national level (United States, Europe).
What are the three revolutions that had to take place before sociological imagination could form? • The Scientiﬁc Revolution (16th c) - encouraged the use of evidence to prove theories.
• The Democratic Revolution (18th c) - encouraged the view that human action can change society.
• The Industrial Revolution (19th c) - gave sociologists their subject matter - when sociology emerged.
What are the main theoretical traditions in sociology?
• Functionalism (macro) - Behaviour governed by state of equilibrium, distinguishing classes (Durkheim).
• Conﬂict (macro) - Higher class uses their power to exploit the lesser class, inequality among classes (Marx).
• Symbolic Interaction (micro) - People help to create social c