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Status midterm notes.doc

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Charles Jones

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Status midterm notes - Bedard, Kelly and Elizabeth Dhuey. "The Persistence of Early Childhood Maturity: International Evidence of Long-Run Age Effects o A continuum of ages exists at school entry due to the use of a single school cutoff date—making the “oldest” children approximately 20 percent older than the “youngest” children. We provide substantial evidence that these initial maturity differences have long-lasting effects on student performance across OECD countries. In particular, the youngest members of each cohort score 4-12 percentiles lower than the oldest members in grade four and 2-9 percentiles lower in grade eight. In fact, data from Canada and the United States show that the youngest members of each cohort are even less likely to attend university Ericsson, K. Anders; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Tesch-Romer,Clemens; "The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance." o The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 years. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. Boyd, Monica. "A Socioeconomic Scale for Canada: Measuring Occupational Status from the Census." The Canadian Review of Sociology 45.1 (2008):51-91. o In this paper, a new socioeconomic scale is produced from the occupational data collected in the Canadian 2001 census of population, using only the educational and earnings properties of specific occupational titles and following the Nam–Powers methodology. This scale ranks the occupational propositions held by individuals along a socioeconomic hierarchy that captures the level of living of those studied. In addition to producing a pure socioeconomic scale, another contribution of the research reported in this paper is the creation of educational and earnings scales specific to occupations. These education- or earnings- specific occupational scales can be used by researchers wishing to study intergenerational inheritance or gender inequality. occupations provide the institutional context within which individual human capital is exercised, accumulated, and rewarded. Nam, Charles B.; Boyd, Monica. "Occupational Status in 2000 -- Over a Census-Based Measurement." Population Research and Policy Review 23.4 (2004): o The Nam–Powers–Boyd Occupational Status Scale for the year 2000 is introduced here. It is the sixth in a decennial series of such scales that were initiated at the Census Bureau a half century earlier. The bureau's examination of occupational status actually goes back to the end of the 19th century and its thread continues today. The historical background of the 2000 scale, the methodology for constructing the scores, some comparisons with other occupational scales, the 2000 scores themselves, and applications of the 2000 scores are presented. Sociological inquiry 41.1 (1971):ian Occupational Structure". o Twelve of the novels of Charles Dickens provide a sample of 349 characters whose occupational achievement and mobility are investigated. The mobility patterns indicate more inheritance than in the United States. This cannot be accounted for by education, material inheritance, or morality (being a good or bad person). A model of quasi-perfect mobility, taking all diagonal frequencies as given, more closely represents the patterns. Determinants of achievement considered are social origins, number of siblings, education, marital status, morality. The characters from large families do better occupationally than those from small. Education functions primarily to redistribute success. The married are superior to the unmarried, with marriage functioning not as a selective mechanism, but exerting causal impact of its own. The evil are rewarded in this life. The basic path model of the stratification system of Dickens is similar to that of the United States. “When Money Dies: Brother, Can you Spare a Million Marks”. American Conservative article summarizing Adam Fergusson’s 1975 book about hyperinflation in 1923 Germany. o More than any other thread that links the two world wars, the history of the inflation is a reminder that the second was an extension of the first. Inflation for Ger- many was an unwitting part of the process of stoking the emotional boil- ers for a resumption of hostilities when the power to wage war returned. Not only did the loss of former affluence and the destruction of the old moral ethic humiliate the human pillars of society: in German minds democracy and republicanism had become so assoc
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