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SOCIOLOGY 103, SUMMER 2013 ULTIMATE EXAM NOTES LECTURE ONE: INTRODUCTION Institution: a relatively stable, shared pattern of behavior based on relatively stable values, meets peoples most important needs -We learn to behave in similar ways to one another  Social institutions are stable patterns of behavior created and maintained through social interaction (a socially recognized pattern of interrelated acts)  All social structures: control us, change us, both resist and produce social change, sociology is the study of social structures  Auguste Comte invented word “sociologie”-a division of science concerned with human beings  Today: the study of predictable/recurring relations among human beings & social institutions and societies people create through such relations  We can’t see social structures except by its effects  Two social crises were important for development of sociology: Industrial Revolution thrust people into new kinds of economic relationships & the French Revolution thrust people into new kinds of political relationships  Sociology today incorporates “multiple narratives & perspectives”, how we know what we know, how we view and judge different images and theories of reality  3 Aims of Sociology: 1) to find and explain patterns in people’s social relations 2) question “common sense” and the received wisdom about the way society works 3) to solve social problems and find better ways of living together  Parentification: adolescents’ adoption of adult family roles by providing instrumental or emotional support from their parents, causes depression, anxiety and faulty relationships, more common in immigrant families due to adolescent-parent acculturation gap: children acculturate faster  German born versus ethnic immigrant adolescents & their mothers, 2010/11 in 3 German cities, questionnaires anon completed  Immigrant children are more parentified than native born children: emotional & instrumental  Marital dissatisfaction of mothers has no effect on immigrant Parentification  Language brokering and an acculturation gap predicted both kinds of Parentification: translation for parents, & inter-ethnic contact for both mother and children  Instrumental Parentification led to self-efficacy in both adolescent groups (self confidence)  High levels of emotional Parentification led to exhaustion in the immigrant group (but not in native group: more economic, cultural, & social capital)  CONCLUSION: instrumental parentification is an asset, emotional Parentification is a risk factor (exhaustion)  SOCIOLOGY: studying similar problems around the globe, studying & solving peoples problems, concerned about issues of the day, rooted in history, testing hypotheses, empirical, incremental, open-ended, connected to other disciplines Schools of Thought:  Functional theory: views society as a set of interconnected parts that work together to preserve the overall stability and efficiency of the whole, social institutions perform both manifest (obvious) and latent (not obvious) functions-functionalists explain social problems by focusing on the failure of institutions to do what we expect of them during times of rapid change  Conflict theories: always about unequal distribution of power, emerged as reaction to functionalism, structural functionalists paid too little attention to social conflict/change, conflict usually has social functions: why universal and never-ending?  Symbolic interactionists: what holds people together in social relationships: shared meanings, definitions, interested in the processes of interaction by which people make and use symbols to construct a society, we build society together, everyday called “social constructionism”  Labeling theory: rests on premise that any social problem is only viewed as such because an influential group of ppl defines it so  Herbert Blumer: all social problems develop in stages that always include: 1) social recognition 2) social legitimating 3) mobilization for action 4) implementation of plan  Feminism: how gender inequality makes womens’ lives are different from men’s, domination of women is not biological, it is socio-economic and cultural factors, 1) erasing women’s social inequality 2) gendering of experiences 3) Victimization of women 4) Intersectionality  Postmodernism: unmasking ideologies that protect/justify dominant social order, modernism= science=truth about reality, postmodernism denies this, reality is fragmentary, disjointed, conflicting accounts of reality, denying universal knowledge Parentification study:  Functionalism: effects of parentification, disruption of family roles on emotional problems of adolescents  Conflict theory: harmful effects of inequality  Symbolic interactionism: study showed but didn’t explain why immigrant children were empowered by parentification  Emile Durkheim’s SUICIDE: based on “sociological method”: systematic analysis of suicide statistics-social causes and meaning of suicide  1) Egoistic suicide: ppl leave social groups they belong to, groups’ bonds weakened by excessive individualism  2) Anomic suicide: absence of social norms, after sudden social disturbance  3) Fatalistic suicide: excessive social regulation  Suicide is highest when: absence of integration  Functionalism: society set of interconnected elements that operate together to maintain stability of society, social institutions may fail to fulfill their intended functions during rapid change, then problems emerge  John Porter: “The Vertical Mosaic”: examines inequalities that different ethnic groups face in Canadian society, Canada= class-based inequality, gv’t response: increasing access to education, Porter called for cultural assimilation-worked in US, DID NOT support multicultural ethnic mosaic=perpetuated ethnic inequality (now its race and class)  Erving Goffman: “Stigma”: symbolic interactionism focuses on micro- sociological processes around interaction, communication, and negotiation of shared meanings, studying peoples face to face interaction, the ways people made sense of their lives, relationships and presented themselves to others  Passing: effort to hide discreditable, stigmatizing facts about one’s identity  Covering: keep discredited features from gaining attention  Usually, they don’t work so people deal with pains of stigma by forming subcultures with people like themselves  Goffman: how social structures arise out of processes by which people interpret and respond to one another  Symbolic interactionists: view society as the product of interaction between people in everyday social relationships, society is dynamic, changing  “Definition of the situation”: emerge out of interpersonal negotiations, definitions we work out and impression we give one another have consequences for how people interact with us  Peter Berger & Thomas Luckmann: “The Social Construction of Reality”: the purpose of sociology is to understand reality of everyday life, how experienced and organized  Symbolic interactionists: people react to shared meanings of events LECTURE TWO: MATERIAL SETTINGS  Cities are the perfect venue to study populations and environments  Food/space are limited, overpopulation & effects on environment?  Large population puts more pressure on the natural environment than a small population, also more likely to innovate, invent new technologies  Population composition plays a role in relation to human capital: higher capital=high productivity and prosperity  Thomas Malthus: first to suggest population problems could threaten human existence, without preventative checks, population would outgrow food supply=”point of crisis”: ppl would die off in large numbers through famine, disease or war  Positive checks: prevent overpopulation by increasing death rate, i.e.) war, famine, disease  Preventative checks: prevent overpopulation by limiting number of live births i.e.) abortion, contraception, abstinence, infanticide  Demographic transition theory: after decline of death rates, societies tend to lower birth rates within one or two generations  Cities are where the most important social, cultural, political, and commercial advances occur, size, variety, & fluidity promote social disorganization/weak social control  Urban industrial society harms natural environment: 1) Cornucopia view of nature frames nature as storehouse of resources that exists only for use of humans 2) Growth ethic celebrates the imagined ability of technology to easily solve all the problems in the world, including those that technology caused 3) Individualism: privileges personal goals and desires over collective interests  Conflict theories: problems poor countries face result from an unfair distribution of the world’s wealth, famine and under-population are results of underdevelopment  Poverty: shortage of capital for industrialization, lack of markets for agricultural products, location is a problem  Urban problems: conflict theorists attribute urban problems not to the effects of size, variety, fluidity, but to workings of capitalism, unequal distribution of urban wealth  Human disasters: 90% of disaster related deaths occur among poor populations in developing countries, have social consequences because they have social causes as well as natural ones  Symbolic interactionism: ppl in same city have different urban experiences, different subcultures=different experiences  Human ecology approach: Ernest Burgess: concentric zone theory=cities tend to develop in similar ways, giving rise to similar patterns of social differentiation, 1) proximity of poorest people to worst environmental conditions 2) class/racial segregation of urban dwellers 3) economically/geographically central importance of business in urban life  Symbolic interactionists: ask how urban and environmental issues enter public consciousness: what kind of social claims make greatest impact and under what circumstances? How environmental polluters manipulate symbols to protect themselves from criticism?  Feminist approaches: Francoise d’Eaubonne=”ecofeminism”: opposes exploitation of marginalized groups & degradation of nature, to identify theoretical work on the potential for women to bring about a ecological revolution and to ensure survival of planet  Domination of men over women is analogous to human domination over nature that leads to environmental destruction, ecofeminists=nurturing, communal approach toward sustainable growth, harm to environment=damaging humanity’s long term interests  Meadows “Limits to Growth”: computerized method for studying the future of the world by simulating interlinked changes over 100 year history, Malthus influence, assumed population/resource increases exponentially  Report conclusion: if we continue at current rate of growth, we will reach limit to growth in next 100 years, it is still possible to change current growth, 30 year update: system collapse is no longer preventable, environmental decline is now inevitable  Ansley Coale: divided human growth in slow growth and fast growth  World’s population is not growing like it was 100 years ago=changes in childbearing, fewer babies  Ulrich Beck: “Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity”: societies are currently dominated by presence of manmade risks, inevitable, due to technological complexity  We lost the unlimited confidence that technology will continue improving forever and there are dangers involved  Water is especially valuable resource today, rapid depletion makes water conservation more important, unequal distribution, non-renewable  Most urban growth is occurring in towns, villages, and cities with 500,000 ppl or less not in megacities  Globalization, urbanization & advanced communication tend to detach us from a sense of belonging to local setting  Homelessness: poverty, unemployment, high housing prices  Apartments put huge pressure on natural environment  Environmental movements: rise of green parties, for environmental regulation/reforms LECTURE THREE: SOCIAL STRUCTURES Social Structures: any recurring pattern of social behavior, ordered interrelationships between different elements of social system, institutions are clusters of norms and meanings, that define the expectations that people hold about each others behavior  Social structure: patterns people express in their behavior  New media makes possible the creation of new social forms i.e.) blogs  Individualization=growth of variety, fluidity, & idiosyncrasy 1) Variety: people fill many different kinds of roles 2) Fluidity: people flow from one role to another more easily 3) Idiosyncrasy: traditional predictors have less effect and patterns are more varied  Traumatic brain injury: leading cause of death and disability worldwide, damage to brain tissue, caused by external mechanical forces, motor vehicle accidents, sports, violence: results in large range of consequences, huge social, occupational and economic costs for society  Study of patients with TBI: 60% drug/alcohol abuse, likely amongst: male, unmarried, unemployed, out of school, lacked post-high school education  Groups, roles and identities we have/belong to, have large influence on our behavior  Adam Smith: “The Theory of Moral Sentiments”: social sentiments are natural, pleasure when ppl approve of us, and distress when we believe they are doing harm, naturally want to please others he says, but sociologists believe these are learned socially not inborn  Smith says we learn to curb our emotions to bring them into line with other people’s emotions, we control our behavior to the point where any impartial spectator would empathize with us, we seek social approval, we even learn to break rules through interaction with others, seeking approval  Howard Beckers “Outsiders”: shows how people learn to smoke/enjoy marijuana, though doing so is illegal, labeled as deviant  Labeling theory: deviance is a process of becoming someone outside the community’s accepted rules  Stereotypes create self-fulfilling prophecies: people who deviate repeatedly over an extended period tend to learn roles and form groups of fellow deviants, which sociologists call deviant subcultures  Normal people learn to deviate in normal ways, they take on new identities and form new communities  Over time, social labeling makes us become the people whom others think we are  Symbolic interactionists approaches: we are all everyday, creating social structure, which would not exist without our intentional, co-operative efforts, we do this by using, creating and revising, “social scripts” (not natural or inborn, vary from culture to culture)  Dramaturgical approach: Goffman: imagine all social life is like scripted stage play, good way of understanding how people behave, we crave order, we crave the encouragement other people give us, advantage: helps explain why people freak out when there is break down,  The social roles we play are the source, not merely the expression of our identities, we make society together, but we are not free to make it any way we individually wish  Ebaugh “Becoming an Ex”: 1) first doubts 2) seeking alternatives 3) turning points 4) creating the “ex” role  Transition: hard or easy? : Voluntariness, irreversibility of the shift, duration of role being exited, the degree of control over the process, individual versus group exit, single versus multiple exits, degree of institutionalization, degree of awareness of the shift  Cooley: “Looking Glass Self”: the way others treat you influences the way you treat yourself, we become the person people think we are  Goffman: role embracement: person accepts social and identity role, role distance: person takes on role but separates his inner self from the identity associated with that role, over time we tend to embrace the roles we play and reduce our distance from them  TBG’s (teams, bands, and gangs): operate very similarly despite goals/activities, they need help with identity formation, operate to many unwritten rules  All TBGs have a stable division of labor, task specialization, associated with differences of skills, personality, and social identity  Unlike TBGs, social networks have no membership list, no group identity, no shared goal, based on indirect connections, info that passes through strong links cycles thru same people, info that passes through weak links, spreads rapidly (beneficial)  Social network is only as strong/stable as pairwise connections called dyadic relationships, all social networks=small world property  Stanley Milgram: 6 degrees of separation, average length of chain connections is 5.5 links  Big world is set of small worlds, stars/brokers=small tightly connected, cliques: tight friendships, interaction, exclusion, purely social no practical goals like TBGs  Cliques: supportive to insiders, cruel to outsiders, cohesion based on loyalty to leader, define behaviors that are proper/acceptable  Organizations: large group that has collective purpose  Formal organization: deliberately planned social group, co-ordinates people, capital, tools through formalized roles, statuses, to achieve specific set of goals, most successful form of organization in history has been bureaucracy  Max Weber: bureaucracy: hierarchical, power varies, each person is office holder in hierarchy, organizations have both ideal and real chains of responsibility, authority, and communication between superiors and subordinates  Bureaucracies are about communication that is structured by rules and authority 6 facets: hierarchical, division of labor, centralization, closed, rules, authority  Do not behave rationally in terms of long-term interests, often forgets goals and social purpose, rigid, unresponsive and slow-changing e.g.) military  Goffman’s “Asylums”: bureaucracy has the potential to promote human progress or enslave and abuse, examined mental institutions from perspective of patient  Total institutions: places where people work, live and are cut off from wider community in formally managed existence, ultimate bureaucracies, follow organizational principles, exert control over inmates, watch and control them, stated goal is to create healthy new identities, instead inmates find ways to get around rules  Michel Foucault: sees modern society as being a total institution in which people are under constant surveillance, testing, supervision  “Discipline and Punish: The Origin of Prison”: how modern societies control us without seeming to control us  “Governmentality”: regulation of people’s behavior by themselves our others, conceptions of social life are rooted in concerns for normality  Max Weber: iron cage: very same processes of modernity prod
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