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Review of chapter 11-Qualitative field research Qualitative field research- interpretivism -subjectivity Main aim : to discover subjects experiences and how subjects make sense of them - is used when numbers cannot conceptualize parts of social behaviour under conditions of any social natural setting - gives the researcher a deeper understanding about behaviour ( ei. attitudes). Fine details are uncovered and are used in understand the big picture - allows for a cultural understanding - used in exploratory or descriptive focus -normally needed to be approved by ethnic board ( unless observation or secondary research is the present) benefits: flexibility, inexpensive and enriching results trouble: conceptualization,ethnic issues when contacting participants ,reactivity( the subject are not acting in social desirability and are natural) ,reliance on recording measures to ensure reliability of data and using the correct form of analysis to ensure validity compared to surveys and experiments, field research measurements generally have more validity but less reliability. Analyzing social settings ( Lofland and et, 2006) 1) practices. Various kinds of behaviour such as talking 2) episodes. A Variety of events such as divorce ,crime and illness 3) Encounters. Two or more people meeting and interacting in immediate 4) Roles and social types. The analysis of the positions people occupy and the behaviour associated with those positions : occupations, family roles, ethnic groups . Social types . 5) Social and behaviour: behaviour appropriate to pair or sets or roles: mother-son 6)groups and cliques. small groups, such as friendships cliques , athletic teams and work groups 7) organizations. Formal organizations, such as hospitals or schools 8) settlements and habitats 9) subcultures and lifestyles field research offers the advantage of probing social life in its natural habitat field research is typically multi method, including a combination of observations, interviews and examination of document. Two terms commonly used are ethnography and research participant In qualitative data, terminology is defined accordly by the researcher. That meaning different term s are conceptualized differently. ei. dating in study x means romantic relations between two people whereas study y defines it as the growing relation between two people. This ambiguity brings a terminological jungle in which concepts take the form by operationalization. (lofland et al. , 2006) types of design Ethnography- it generally refers to a report on social life that focus on accurate description rather than explanation. For some it refers also to data collected in the natural setting while for other it refers to naturalistic observation and holistic understandings of culture or subculture. -normally used in anthro. we have linked this back to participant observation SOC method ( refer to lecture 10 slide 11-3 for greater detail about field con) - a way of studying any groups, event in its natural environment. naturalism- an approach to field research based on the assumption that an objective social reality exists and can be reported accurately. ----------------------------------------------------
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