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SOC250Y1 Study Guide - Aboriginal Peoples In Canada

9 pages45 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC250Y1
Professor
Joseph Bryant

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March 9th, 2011 SOC 250
Religion and War violent struggles between people and states
Religious values, beliefs, practices and their social articulation: in politics, in kinship,
economics and education...and in WAR
Religion is often deeply implicated in group conflicts and violence:
Religion as a primary identity marker in all violence and war
1)Religion and group/ethnic identity [catholic, protestant, Jew/Muslim etc]
2)Conflicts over sacred space [ the holy land, demolition of Babri mosque in Ayodhya,
said to be a Ram temple site, expropriation of aboriginal sacred places etc]Extremist
Hindu nationalist claimed mosque placed on site of Hindu temple Ram. Aboriginal
Canadian struggles with other Canadians over sacred lands and territories..Mohawk
apprising partly trigerred by nonaboriginal community to expropriate aboriginal
sacred land
3)Religion as institutional and cultural power/privilege forms of religious-based
domination and discrimination [religion and law, education, norms and values etc]
Dominant religion groups institutional and cultural control of norms, privileges and
access to rewards and resources...religion can partly become source of
discrimination..religion embedded in law system in such a way to privilege one
group over the other or access to education or access to certain kinds of jobs..
War as a form of social action that requires divine backing, support: patron deities (diety
with a special relation to power e.g. Athena patron of athen) , blessings of priests rituals to
empower preliminary divination (e.g. weather favourable to war) sacred tendance of the
dead claims to divine favour (god is on our side, seen commonly in modernity)
Religions are either explicitly or implicitly ideologies of power, because the force/beings they
worship, propitiate, are world-ordering (dominnat religion validate existing social power.
Dieties worshipped/reciveed honourship, reinforcing nexus there..gods validated social
order, human communities paid honourship to the gpd..when a society is experiencing defat
in war, it is speculated the god is unhappy and not supportive of our mission, doubts begin
to rise. Gods are responsile of social order. They are world sorderly beings, what happens on
earlthly level is Divines favour or disfavour)
A societys kriegsethik (religion produce different type of ethics, war ethics consist
of whole series of norms which is regarded as appropriate by community and
religion define whats appropriate), its preferred style of collective raping, looting,
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burning, enslaving, and killing, is typically interwoven with the prevailing religious
mythology/worldview:
a)Vocabulary of acceptable motives (reasons of attacking others)
b)Legitimate goals and opponents [ dehumanize the other, or sacralise, honour]
certain types of religions have played a prominent role in dehumanizing certain
communities saying these people are godless and causing war. Religion will
sacralise certain forms of combat, making it sacred, religious responsibility in
invoking wars against certain groups
c)Approved ways of fighting
Religion will provide worldview where warfare is legitimate, targets, goals and
purposes and this is where we see variations across different religions.. war
ethics and variations
Two basic orientations [ James Aho, religious Mythology and te Art of War, 1981]
I Immanentist Cosmological war maintains, reorders the cosmos, so war is a part of
the natural order. Warfare are part of the world.
Examples: the Hinud epic Mahabharata, Aztec Guerra florida, Norse or Viking
religion [where warriors killed in combat are transported by valkyries to
Wodan;s Valhalla, to rise daily, partake of mead and boar flesh, enjoy sensual
delights with thevalkyries, and fight anew] Going to Viking heaven is only
possible by being a warrior, each day they get up, feed on flesh and fight..
II Transcendent Historical (re) establish gods law in history, implement the divine
plan this is essentially the orientation of the monotheistic traditions..Divinity is outside
the world, above the world and the world is the creation of that deity and instead of having
a cosmological order where universe has a certain structure, we have a historical sense of
temporality in which there is a beginning and conclusion, not a cyclical pattern..
Examples: Israelite conquest of Canaan, Islamic jihad, Christian crusades holy
war is one that god requires faithful to fight consecrated aggression against
the enemies of god : infields, apostates (initially believers and then turned
against), heretics, pagans/polytheists, blasphemers... god leads moses to Israelite
land and order them to wipe out those people who are described to be
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abominations, they are polytheists and they practice idolatry and it is offensive
in Israelite God and there is holy war that is articulated to wipe out idols to
prevent themselves to fall into temptations to practice idolatry and god had
promised Abraham to give that land to him
Not only two traditions but some religions may exist in between following part of
the first one and part of second...
Faithful are called to wage holy war against nonbelievers key point. With
monotheism emergence, nonbelievers described as enemies of the god and
subjected to violence
contrasts Imm-cosmo = war as play, as a noble end in itself (when pursued correctly), death
and killing in battle glorious conduct governed by ritual propriety, chivalric norms [ our
rivals, our opponents in war, also have gods] god part of fabric, some gods favour warriors
while others support others, rivals in war have to be treated with the level of respect that
they have a divine too..both warrior groups are seeking to achieve glory and distinction and
treated with some level of respect
Trans-Hist = war as a moral duty end justify means religious intensity and brutality
against enemies of god [ our rivals, our opponents are godless or followers of demons,
Satan..] because god is expecting you to initiate violence against enemies, the only thing
that matters is eliminate them without much concern of respecting their humanity. War is
raised more to a level of instrumental efficiency and brutality. Whatever it takes, war
should be governed by the objective which is to remove the nonbelievers. All non-believers
considered godless so nothing to raise them to a level to be treated respectfully since they
are blasphemers of true GOD.
Even countries with polytheisms, the Imm-Cosm isnt as coherent as it used to be and the
second one is whats practiced more now..
War-gods and the Rise of the state- ruling dynasties were military monarchs
The boasts of the conquerors : the Babylonian Ishtar broke their bow and undid their
battle formations the Akkadian Inanna routed the foe and watered the earth with their
blood:
Rise of state and professional armies then war, politics and religion became much more
strongly reinforced
Ascendancy of storm gods/ war gods
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