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Final

SOC of everyday life full studynotes.docx


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC388H1
Professor
Vanina Leschziner
Study Guide
Final

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Sociology of Everyday Life Study Notes
January 12th Lecture
- class focuses on micro factors rather than macro factors
- examines the connections between the individual and society
- looks at triad, duo groupings
- looks at what meanings do we give to our actions
- look at mental life and look at social factors* that shape these factors
- focus more on those social factors
- how do we develop our SELF IMAGE? (through interactions with others)
- we will look at a lot of things that will suggest there is a social order
- looking at meanings (ie; cultures, individual experiences)
TIME= why is that we organize a different mentality around MON-FRI and than SAT-
SUN? Because there is a certain routine, more pressures MON-FRI and we follow
others
Classifications of Plants and Animals= why are they classified the way they are?
theory based class and take the conceptual and analytical arguments from
the text
need to do a research paper
intersection between social forms of perception and taking for granted norm
Why is it that we act so differently in rock/pop concerts versus opera?
- in opera you pay more, therefore you want to listen tentatively and this level
of sophistication
FOR NEXT WEEK”S READINGS: Social organizations, facts, Totemism, individual to
society relationship,
January 19th Lecture
- Emile Durkheim 1858-1917
For Marx, how do we produce our substances? From this comes the
bourgeois and proletarian and then the unequal distribution of goods and
services..
For Weber, this connection between the individual and society comes from
ideas and the thoughts about them and its not just materialistic
needs…capitalism and religious beliefs will have an effect on larger scale
institutions

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Division of Labor in Society 1893
For Durkheim, this connection comes from ‘collective consciousness’ and
ideas, values and beliefs everyone shares, society is like a living body and if
one part breaks down it all breaks down
Wanted to find the connection between the individual and society and he
found that people wanted to maintain an order, categories shape our ideas
(ie; what is inside our minds and our behaviors), wanted to study the
different functions of society,
*collective consciousness=brains in our body, society is generated for a
collective consciousness and a reality that is above and beyond , Durkheim
says we have 2 parts: individual and collective consciousness (ie; being
aware of what your doing)
* Society is very real and they collective consciousness is real and shared
with big groups of people and lasted for a long time
* in what societies is the collective consciousness most important? In a very
traditional society or societies where people are more similar , in previous
societies without the division of labor, people had the same functions and
no one specialized and in this regard the collective consciousness
played a very important role! The part in our minds of our collective
consciousness is most great
Durkheim talks about: organic vs. mechanical solidarity : why was it
called mechanical solidarity? People were more linked and connected to each
other, and they were more collective. Organic solidarity is when we work
with each other and for someone else, not just linked to society (tie both to
labor). *** BIGGER THE CONSIOUSNESS THE BIGGER THE SOLIDARITY
Mechanical solidarity= ie; people are so similar to each other, shared and
collective (used in traditional societies) ! bigger collective consciousness
Organic Solidarity= ie; collective contributing to the whole, little
individuality ! bigger individual consciousness
MECH= ORG
Lots of solidarity to little
solidarity will always be present
Can we have both mechanical and organic solidarity? NO, in Durkheim’s
writings because in societies you can move from one to another but you
cannot have both.
What did Durkheim talk about CRIME? Crime happened in societies were
social solidarity was low, because people did not have a strong social
consciousness. A crime isn’t bad, it is just when people don’t agree with the
norms and going against the collective consciousness
ANOMIE= there are norms set in place and people get used to this and once
they start changing people start to ‘break out’ and this is when the norms are

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not being upheld strongly enough . Associated with normlessness (confusion
over action that is appropriate); due to rapid change (either societal or
individual change) because a weakening of restraints leads to higher hopes
and thus greater disappointments: when there is to much change, they loss
there sense of self direction ie; rapid downward or rapid upward. Gap
between what people want and there actual rewards
What should you do when a crime happens? People should be punished!
Repress them and protect those core ideas and punish them! , he said certain
crimes were to be addressed with certain kind of laws that were more
oppressive than others,
Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912)
- worshiping god= worshipping society
rule
authority
strength
why is this the same? Essentially Durkheim is arguing that there is a
parallel between our relationship between god and society , think about
how we feel in the face of society? Ie; powerless, needy we feel the same
way towards god.
Society has rules: society makes it so we cannot disagree, we must
submit to their rules even though they may be contradictory to our values
and if we DON’T we might be in trouble because we cannot survive, or
thrown into prison
Society has moral authority: we must set aside our own desires in order
to conform and defer to what society demands of us, society see’s bigger
then ourselves
Society has strength: (ie; being part of a political group: so much
emotion) we common with society like you would with god… feel a
strength bigger then ourselves
TOTEMISM= simplest form of religion , it represents god and society ,
represents a physical form of society
- rituals maintain sacredness
*sacred and profane are the basic categories of every religion, and they are
found everywhere
Sacred= anything..spirts..special animals, seen to have special powers that
cause them to be treated with respect (ie; power is shown through ritual)
Profane= consists of the rest of the world, treated as a matter of fact sort of
way , things we put prohibitions towards (ie; saying pork is seen as dirty)
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