Vocabulary Terms for Final Exam
1. Accidentals: In textual criticism, such formal features of a text as capitalization, spelling,
word division, punctuation, and italicization, as opposed to wording. See “substantives.”
2. Analytical Bibliography: The branch of bibliography devoted to determining the
circumstances of books’ production through examining such physical evidence as ink,
paper, typography, format and arrangement of text.
3. Cancel: One leaf or more or a slip pasted to a page to replace what was originally printed,
as for correction for insertion of a title page with another publisher’s or bookseller’s
imprint. That which is replaced may be called the cancelland; that which replaces, the
cancellans (or simply cancel). To cancel is to cut out printed or blank pages.
4. Chain Lines: Lines, roughly twenty-five millimeters apart, created by the mold in which
laid paper was made and running parallel to the shorter sides of the sheet. Chain lines
may also be impressed into machine-made paper by a dandy roll. See “wire lines.”
5. Collate: In book production, to assemble sheets or gatherings for binding. In
bibliography, to analyze and record (as in a collational formula) the number, order, and
arrangement of leaves and gatherings in a book. In textual criticism, to compare one text
with another to discover textual variation.
6. Collation Formula: An abbreviated form for recording the number, order, and
arrangement of leaves and gatherings in a book, using signatures to represent gatherings
and superscript figures to indicate the number of leaves in a gathering.
7. Colophon: Notes at the end of manuscripts and printed books giving information about
production, usually including date, place and producer (scribe or printer). The note may
be accompanied by a printer’s device. Information in these notes is not always reliable.
8. Conjugate Leaves: Leaves that form a pair joined by an inner fold. Thus, in a sheet folded
to form a quarto, leaf 1 is a conjugate with leaf 4, leaf 2 with leaf 3. Leaves that are not
conjugate are disjunct.
9. Copy-text: In critical editing, the text (generally of a particular document) whose
readings, because of the circumstances of its production, are presumed authoritative in
the absence of contrary evidence. An editor follows its readings except when they are
determined to be in error or when there is evidence for the superior authority of variant
readings in another text. 10. Critical Edition: a scholarly edition that presents a text constructed by adopting readings
from one document or more and by correcting readings determined to be errors. The
critical text thus constructed is accompanied by an apparatus that explains the editorial
principles and procedures, lists the textual emendations, and provides a historical
collation of the text. Critical editing often resorts to an expedient known as copy-text.
11. Deckle Edge-The untrimmed, uneven edge of a sheet of paper as it comes from the mold
in papermaking by hand or form the web in papermaking by machine. The deckle is the
frame around the mold used in making paper by hand; it is a rubber dam or strap in
12. Definitive Edition: a scholarly edition that provides a thorough record of a text and its
history and presents a critical text based on the evidence of that record. The term is no
longer in favor, except as an object of derision.
13. Documentary Edition: A scholarly edition that presents, without emendation, the text of a
particular document. The text is accompanied by an apparatus that generally includes a
description of the document transcribed, the basis for its selection, the principles of
transcription employed, and lists of variant readings found in other documents. Also
called “diplomatic edition.”
14. Duodecimo: a book format in which the sheets are printed so that each sheet, after being
folded, produces twelve leaves (twenty-four pages). Also, a book printed with this
format. Also called a “twelvemo.” Abbreviated as 12(degree sign) and 12mo.
15. Edition: In the strict bibliographical sense, all copies of a book printed from substantially
the same setting fo type or from plates made from that type or type image. Publishers use
the term more loosely and variously, often to distinguish among copies identifiable by
publishing format (such as paperback and hardback), change of publisher, textual
revision, or some other feature, even if all the copies belong to the same edition in a
16. Endpaper: The leaf pasted to the inside of a cover (the paste-down endpaper) and the
conjugate, unpasted leaf (the free endpaper or flyleaf).
17. Facsimile Edition: an edition that reproduces an earlier edition’s text and its typographic
appearance. 18. Folio: A book format in which sheets are printed for folding once, each sheet thus
producing two leaves (four pages). Abbreviated 2 (degr