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Study Guide

[PSYC 251] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

14 Pages

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PSYC 251
Adam Krawitz

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UVic PSYC 251 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at Cognition- latin term meaning “the faculty of knowing”, in practice is refers to the set of processes (cognitive functions) that allow human and other animals perceive external stimuli. Mind- the full spectrum of persons awareness (consciousness) at any point reflecting sensory percepts. Cognition is sometimes described as processing carried out by the mind. Modern researchers rarely study only those aspects of cognitive function that are accompanied by conscious experience. Many important aspects cognition comes and behavior occur without conscious experience. Behaviorism- a perspective in cognitive psychology that holds only directly observable behavior and not internal mental states, can be studied scientifically. Cognitive science- discipline that seeks to understand and model the information processing associated with cognitive functions. Cognitive models- explanatory framework that invokes unobserved internal states to predict how stimuli lead to actions. Psychological constructs- a theoretical concept often generated by converging results across experiments that cannot be directly observed but serves to explain and unify a body of research. Nervous systems- the network of nerve cells throughout the body Cerebral cortex- the superficial gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Phrenology- originating in the early 19 century the attempt to create maps of brain function bases on the pattern of bumps and valleys on the surface of the skull. Localization of function- the idea that the brain may have distinct regions that support particular cognitive functions. Neurons-also called nerve cells, cell specialized for the conduction and transmission of electrical signal in the nervous system. Actions potentials- the electrical signal conducted along neuronal axons by which information is conveyed from one place to another in the nervous system. Neurotransmitters- a chemical agent released at synapses that mediates signaling between nerve cells. Synapses- a specialized point of contact between an axon and neuron. Cognitive neuroscience-discipline that seeks to create models that explain the interrelations between brain function and cognitive functions. Neural correlates- a measure of brain function that covaries with the expression of cognitive function. Individual differences- variation in a cognitive function or other trait across people. Often as can be related to a particular biological predictor. find more resources at find more resources at Convergence- the combination of results across multiple experimental paradigms, often to support inferences about an unobservable internal states. Complementarity- the combination of data across multiple methods for measuring brain function, often to improve inferences about the nature of the generative neural process. Class notes: History of the neuron- Neuron Doctrine ● The nervous system consists of discrete individual cells ● Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1888) “Neuron” ● Term coined by Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer (1891) What is a neuron? Specialized biological cells ● In the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ● Whose primary function is information processing (i.e. computation) and transmittal Neuronal Structure -Dendrites, Cell body and Axon are the most important parts of a neuron -input through the dendrites output through axon Functional Parts of a neuron -input -> dendrites -integrative-> axon hillock -conductive-> axon -output->syapse Axon -Axon hillock-> mylin sheath& nodes of ranvier-> axon terminal (terminal bouton) find more resources at find more resources at Synapses -spine syapse-> shaft synapse -> axodendritic synapses -presynaptic cell -> synaptic cleft-> postsynaptic cell Membrane Potential -lipid (fatty) bilayer is the cell membrane, prevents flow of ions, proteins and other water-soluble molecules. -neuron as “battery” difference of electrical potential, more positive ions and more negative ions inside the neuron to balance. Conducts across the membrane -Ion channels ● Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl- -passive transport -selective permeability -can be gated -Ion pumps - Na+/K+, Ca2+ -active transport -require energy (ATP) Nongated Ion channels K+ (potassium channel) -higher electrical potential  Higher K+ concentration -Electrical gradient pushes down and concentration gradient pushes up Nernst Equation E ion = Equilibrium potential for ion find more resources at find more resources at R=Universal gas constant F = Faraday constant T = Temperature z = Valence ln() = natural logarithm [ion]o = outside concentration of ion [ion]i = inside concentration of ion -Na+ (sodium) channel higher electrical potential Higher Na+ concentration Influx of ions -electrical and concentrations gradient both push downwards Sodium and Potassium pump For 1 molecule of ATP (adenosine triphosphate): ● 2 K+ in ● 3 Na+ out ● Result: ● Concentration gradients ● Greater Na+ outside ● Greater K+ inside ● Electrical gradient ● Higher potential outside RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL Steady state ● Passive & active transport balance out ● Difference of electrical potential: energy source find more resources at find more resources at Action Potential - Hyperpolarization ● Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials (IPSPs) Depolarization ● Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (EPSPs) ACTION POTENTIAL (SPIKE!) ● Rapid depolarization and repolarization ● Occurs at threshold potential (~55 mV) All or none -constant amplitude (~100 mV above resting) ● Constant timecourse (~1 ms) ● Refractory period (~5 ms) Voltage-gated ion channels -let more ions into the cells Action Potential Events 1. At threshold, voltage- gated Na+ channels open, and positive Na+ ions flow into cell 2. As depolarization continues, even more voltage-gated Na+ channels open, increasing depolarization 3. Voltage-gated K+ channels open, and K+ ions flow out of cell 4. Voltage-gated Na+ channels close, while voltage-gated K
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