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Dec . 4 Sociocultural Anthropology – December Exam Review.docx

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Western University
Anthropology 1020E
Sherry Larkin

Sociocultural Anthropology – December Exam Review Lecture 1 What is Culture? Definition of culture: “The system of meanings about the nature of experience that are shared by a people and passed on from one generation to another” (Robbins & Larkin, 2007:309). • Important Point: Culture is rooted in time and shaped by history but it is never static; people both reproduce and change elements of their culture over time Important Terms: Ethnocentrism Ethnocentric Fallacy Cultural Relativism Relativistic Fallacy - moral dead end - if we can’t judge right or wrong you cant see the connections between people Lecture 2: How Do Anthropologists Study Culture? • What is an ethnography? - Written account of their research - Procuded by and for specific research • Video: Off the Veranda: – Do anthropologists still believe it is possible to find the native’s point of view? o Malinowski’s goal was to find the Trobiander’s point view o However, anthropologists are now fully aware they will never be able to see the native point of view because we cannot take off our own cultures o Important Terms: (definitions of these are on OWL in lecture 2) Reflexivity Translating Constructing Meaning Interpretation Lecture 3: What is Progress? Definition of Progress: “The idea that human history is the story of a steady advance from a life dependent on the whims of nature to a life of control and domination over natural forces” (Robbins & Larkin, 2007:312). • Why did we change from Hunting & Gathering to Agriculture? - Was it progress - No, agriculture is much more difficult and much less reliable o If a crop fails you’re fucked - Changed b/c of population increase o People couldn’t hold onto their own areas for hunting • Age of Discovery: Europeans met the rest of the world - Progress - How did they understand what they saw? • Typologies: - Unilineal Cultural Evolutionism o All humanity started out at one point at the bottom of the ladder and they were “Savages”  Hunter gatherers o Once they started agriculture (barbarians) o Once like Europeans (civilized) o Progressive in the sense that European’s believed that there was hope for Savages, all people could move up the ladder  They thought that these savages were fossils of their previous selves, and studied them to learn about their own past o - Political o Colonialism o Maintaining control over colonies was a problem o Learn as much as they could about the other societies and how they were governed  Egalitarian, stratified o Divided all societies into 4 types  Band (egal), Tribal (egal), Cheifdoms (strat), States (strat)  Now they can keep control • How do anthropologists see small-scale societies? - Not fossilized replicas but societies that are trying to put their societies back together after the effects of colonialism o Ex. Trobianders now are not the same as pre-European invasion Lecture 4: What is Economic Development? • Theories about rich and poor societies: - Modernization o Some countries are rich because they do things better o They spend time doing research, they are efficient etc o Poor countries could become like the rich ones if they went through the same procedures as the poor o Multi-national copoerations will bring good things to poor countries  Ex. Technology o Poor countries should do what they do best  Ex. St. Lucia should just grow Bananas o - Dependency o Mirror image of modernization; comes out of the third world Latin America  Keeping poor countries out of world market so keeping them dependent on the Rich countries o Muti-National businesses don’t want to alleviate poverty they want to make money  Take whatever profits they make in poor countries and send them back  Ex. 90% of things for tourists in St. Lucia are imported Lecture 5: Making a Living • Strategies: – Hunting and Gathering or Foraging – Subsistence Agriculture o Meeting basic needs  Done without mechanization o Plant a plot of land with crops and when its depleated they leave it and clear another plot  Often have lots of plots in different stages – Pastoralism o Domestication of animals  If the people use 50% of the animal products o – Intensive Agriculture o Opposite of subsistence o Growers use only one plot of land over and over again o Rotate crops  Have to nourish and replenish soils o Ontario – Industrial Agriculture o Also in Ontario o Growing things not for ones on use but to sell or export  Ex. Tobacco o Video: Ongka’s Big Moka - People organize their agriculture around something else o Ex. Moka - Ongka would travel all around make sure everyone in his village was doing their part to have lots of things for the Moka o Society was in-between egalitarian and cheifdom Lecture 6: Kinship, Marriage, and Families (4 QUESTIONS ON KINSHIP CHART) • Kindred: Bilateral Descent - Everyone on the chart is related to you - • Lineage: Unilineal Descent - Trace kinship through either mother or father – Patralineage – Matrilineage o Siblings, mother, her siblings, mother’s mother all belong to the same group  Father does not – Parallel Cousins: o Father’s brothers kids, Mother’s sisters kids  Same thing as brot
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