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linguistic review.doc

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Anthropology 1020E
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LINGUISTICSThe Big Ideas from Linguistic Anthropology 1 Language is an essential part of what makes us human 2 All living languages are always changing 3 People use language to accomplish both practical and social goals 4 What is appropriate good or bad language depends on culture and context Chapter 1 Introducing Linguistic Anthropology anthropologythe study of cultural and biological variations of human groups past present and contemporarylinguistic anthropologystudy of how language reflectsinfluences social life the study of language in both its biological and sociocultural contextslinguistics the scientific study of the various aspects of human speech including its nature structure and changes over timeholistic holistic linguisticsbranch of ling Concerned with the development over time of languagelanguages holistic approachconcerned with a system as an integral whole rather than with only certain aspects of the systemFranz Boas dominant figure in early anthropology took part in 700 publicationsfrom native music lang etc To studies in culture human bio and archaeology relationships btwn language cultures and societies basically was the person who helped shape the 4 subfields bio ling cul archaeEdward Sapir description of morphology of Takelma thought of as a primitive language found this language to be very grammatically complex therefore myth that societies that are not urbanized have little grammar is FALSE content of language is related to culture if a society doesnt need a name for something then it wont have one history of lang and history of culture move along parallel linesChapter 2 Methods of Linguistic Anthropology fieldwork the gathering of cultural or linguistic data by talking to and observing the activities of those being studiedparticipant observation the immersion of anthropological fieldworkers in the daytoday activities of the people they are studying usually for an extended period informantconsultant informanta person serving as a source of data for the analysis of a language speech behaviour or cultureusually a native speaker consultantterm used for informant in recognition of the intellectual contribution informants make to studies in linguistic anthroculture culture the complex of human learned behaviour knowledge and beliefs transmitted from one generation to the next A culture is the pattern of learned behaviour knowledge and beliefs transmitted from gen To gen By members of a particular societymethods used in linguistics vs linguistic anthropology linguistic anthropologist insist on languages interdependence with cultural and social structures unlike linguists ling Anthropo View lang in its cultural framework and are concerned with the rules for its social useinterest in speech use and relations that exist btwn lang And its users linguists emphasize linguistic structure and the historical development of language division of labour exists btwn the two
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