Astronomy 2022A/B : astro notes.docx

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There are gut force and gravitational force: electroweak era: Strong force separates from the gut force. Higgs boson is somehow involved: particle era: Elementary particles filled the universe, then quarks combined to make protons and antiprotons. 10-10 to 10-3 seconds: when matter (as opposed to energy) became important. 1 electron and 1 anti-electron form 2 photons; 2 photons form 1 electron and. 1 anti-electron: antimatter particles have the same mass as their matching matter particle but opposite electric charge. When antimatter and matter meet they annihilate. Fusion produced helium from protons (h nuclei) Protons and neutrons combining to make nuclei. 10-3 to 103 seconds, begins when matter annihilates remaining antimatter. Lasts a long time (3 minutes to 300,000 years) as universe cools from 109 to. Nuclei and electrons are still separate plasma of free electrons and h + he nuclei filled the universe: atom era: atoms form and universe becomes transparent.

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