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Biochemistry Midterm 1Review.docx

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Western University
Biochemistry 2280A
Christopher Brandl

Biochemistry Review Topic 1 Central Dogma of Molecular BiologyDogma doctrine or code of beliefs accepted as authoritativeDogma of Biology DNARNAProtein DNA synthesis occurs to replicate the DNA double helix helical structure discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953RNA synthesis transcription occurs to give rise to the mRNA transcriptProtein Synthesis translation occurs to translate information via ribosomes from mRNA transcript into amino acids by codons on mRNA to form polypeptides o Mechanisms of epigenetics alter the protein functions yet the DNA sequence is left unmodified Personalized MedicineA medical model that proposes the personalization of health caremedical decisions are being tailored specifically to the patient by use of genetic or other bodily informationDefects in DNA are the source of many types of diseasespersonalized medicine looks more at the genotype Pharmacogenomics Sequencing of genome to help predict which drugs someone would respond to the bestthe cost of sequencing your genome is becoming less expensive and personalized medicine is becoming less expensiveTopic 2 Amino AcidsAmino Acids Proteins are composed of linear polymers of amino acids called polypeptidesLAmino acids stereoisomers are the amino acids that make up proteins for human lifeAmino acids contain 4 components o Amino Group NH 2o Carboxyl Group COOH o Hydrogen H o Rgroup side chainClasses of Amino AcidsNonpolar o Nonpolar side chains are hydrophobico Proline pro P is nonpolarit is an imino acid meaning its immediate syntheticprecursor was an imino acid ie contained an imine CNHAll polar side chains are hydrophilicPolar Charged Basic o Contain basic groupslysine lys K arginine arg R histidine his HPolar Charged Acidic o Contain carboxyl groupsglutamic acid glu E aspartic acid asp D Uncharged polar side chains o Contain hydroxyl groups Serine ser S threonine thr T tyrosinetyr Y o Contain amide groups glutamine gln Q asparagine asn N Memorize these amino acidsSpecialized groups are found in amino acids for specific purposes relating to protein structure and functionTopic 3 Protein Structure
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