Biochemistry 2280A Midterm: Bio2280 Midterm Notes

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Central dogma: the way genetic information is stored and retrieved in living cells. Only protein and some rna s are the active workers in the cell, catalyzing reactions, moving things around, creating structures, etc . Proteins: made from 20 amino acids (hereafter aa) strung together in long linear polymer chains. Chains fold and coil in 3d to achieve biological function. Macromolecules with molecular weight ranging from about 5000 to several million. Many are biological catalysts (enzymes) which catalyze a single chemical reaction in the cell but other serve a range of functions. Properly known as alpha-amino acids, general structure is ncc- backbone. Amino group on left, -nh3+ (n-terminus), carboxyl group on right, -coo (c-terminus) 19 of 20 are amino with same arrangement around alpha-carbon, praline is imino!! Stereoisomers are possible; designated d- and l-amino acids. Net charge is important, derived from ionization of weakly acidic or basic groups. Acidic groups = ionization decreases and ph decreases.

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