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3229G Final: Final review

4 Pages

Course Code
Biology 3229F/G
Graeme Taylor

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Animal diversity Phylogeny recapitulates ontogeny – The idea is that the embryo goes through the phylogenic tree as it develops to reach final stage Metazoans – radial or bilateral symmetry Mollusca 7 classes AM – Aplacophora, Monoplacophora CS – Cephalopoda, Scaphopoda GBP – Gastropoda, Bivalve, Polyplacophora Gastropods – primarily marine. Found everywhere but the air. Oysters – abductor muscles to close shell. Only have muscles to keep shell closed Bivalves Small foot = thick shell Large foot = thin shell Larger foot allows it to dig deeper and require less protection from the outside. Scaphopoda Don’t have gills. Have captacula instead Burrow into the ground. Sister group is the bivalve. Polyplacophora - 8 plates - broad flat foot - Herbivores - Inter-tidal Aplacophora Worms without shells. - foot represented by pedal groove Monoplacophora - 20 species looks like half a bivalve. Thought to be extinct. Kind of sort of displays segmentation, but they don’t have molluscs with segmentations ctenidium = gills Synapomorphies of molluscs - bilateral - mantle with shell - torsion - once torsion occurs, bilateral symmetry goes away - Anus is on top of head - Torsion was never evolved out of. Torsion exists because they can fit into shell easier - dorsal visceral masses - buccal (mouth) with a radula. It has a mouth with radula (teeth) - large muscular foot - complete gut marked with regional specialization - have trocophore larvae Key features of molluscs – shell, radula, foot Shell, head, and radula varies in size Ancient, successful Cephalopods Closed circulatory system except for nautilus Octopus are quite active. Blue blood (haemocyanin) Counter current exchange (can take more oxygen out of the water) Large complex brain (8 arm brains – control the arms) + main brain Giant squid – 1 mm axons Vision – convergent evolution in the eye. Structurally similar to vertebrate eyes Chromotaphores When relaxing, they are more opaque. Two tentacles, 8 arms. Arms have suckers for squid (sometimes with a tooth in each sucker) Beaks For chewing, Chitinous > Graded for muscle attachment Echinodermata Deuterostomes, marine, skeleton-ish 5 classes: asteroidean (sea star), crinoidea (most basal), Echinoidea (urchins), ophiuroidea (brittle stars), holothuoidea (sea cucumber) Sea lily –
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