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Final Exam Review.docx

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Western University
Biology 3332A
Ron Podesta

Description 1)Swimmers itch = schistosomiasis Responses: close off body of water, • Kill snails with molluscicide • Treat water • Mechanical removal • Give birds praziquantel • Tell them not to go swimming early morning and on sunny days because cercaria are shed a lot then Why is it a bad short term response • Snails develop resistance • Kill other snails • Need a shitton of molluscide • Expensive • Currents can drag the molluscicide away, kill snails in other areas • Ecosystem damage, snails are actually important so… 2)IL 10 is what schistosome uses to regulate human immune system, so TH2 reponse o That means that schistosome will live with TH2 reponse o Vaccine should cause a TH1 response because of this o Vaccine can’t be used on a person already infected or a pregnant lady. With a person that’s already infected, immune system of the person will kill them. With a pregnant lady, will kill the baby. o So, a vaccine similar to the calpain vaccine must be used. Calpain is a protease that breaks down the cytoskeleton in order to allow the envelope of the parasite to be repaired. Although the calpain vaccine is in trial, it is expected to be effective against this process. o Specifically, the vaccine induces a larvicidal effect, reduction in egg production, and reduction in adult worm numbers. Mean granuloma size in liver of test subjects was smaller than control group. Meaning, less foreign bodies are found in test subjects. (A granuloma is something that the body can’t deal with, so it surrounds the object with T cells) o IL10 stimulates NF K pathway, because NFKB controls host stress response, the parasite is increasing stress to host. Because of this, immune system is weakened as resources have to be used to deal with the stress. 3) o Decreased response to parasite effects, because of control of immune system. If parasite • Parasite can express host antigens and evade that way • Active evasion: schistosomes express C type lectins, sequester host recognition tags. • Also they produce competing ligands(blocks its own receptors to keep antibodies from binding to its surface) • Repairing the envelope • Increases IL 10 response, which decreases host immune response • Suppresses T cells and macrophages, with that same IL 10 response • Skin is a barrier to invasion, parasite expresses a serine protease in cercarial stage that breaks down connective tissue in epidermis of host 4) o We want to target a protein that the parasite has that we don’t • Screen genome to find unique proteins • They have several calcium channels that are
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