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Midterm

Biology 1201A Midterm: Biology1201_Test2Outcomes_Week9Premium

3 pages36 viewsFall 2016

Department
Biology
Course Code
Biology 1201A
Professor
Vera Tai
Study Guide
Midterm

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Biology 1201 Test 2 Outcomes Part 4
Define, understand, and use vocabulary correctly (including but not limited to: diploid, haploid, trisomy,
gene, allele, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, nondisjunction, cross-over, chiasmata,
recombination, prophase I, interkinesis, microtubules, etc.)
Genetic Recombination: the process by which the combinations of alleles for different genes in
two parental individuals become shuffled into new combinations in offspring individuals
without genetic recombination, the reproduction is asexual and the offspring are simply
identical clones of their parent this happens during prophase I (crossing-over)
Non-disjunction: the failure of homologous pairs to separate during the FIRST meiotic division
OR of the chromatids to separate during the SECOND meiotic division; REMEMBER the failure
of homologous chromosomes to disjoin in meiosis 1 has no effect on meiosis 2; and that
chromatids will most likely separate normally in meiosis 2; for Dow’s sydroe the
frequency of non-disjunction increases as women ages
Homologous chromosomes: these are chromosomes pairs where one is from the father
(paternal chromosome) and the other one is from the mother (maternal chromosome); the
position of the genes on each homologous chromosome is the same, however, the genes may
contain different alleles
Allele: Different forms of individual genes (different arrangement of nucleic acids between
copies of the same gene); it could be two or homologous chromosomes that carry the same
genes arranged in the same order BUT different VERSIONS of these genes
Sister Chromatids: Before a cell goes through mitosis, duplication of each chromosome occurs
where two identical copies of each chromosome are produced sister chromatids
Meiosis: division of diploid cells to haploid progeny, consisting of two sequential rounds of
nuclear and cellular division
Gametes: a haploid cell (egg or sperm n = 23); haploid cells fuse during sexual reproduction
to form a diploid zygote (2n = 46); restoration of original chromosome number happens after
fertilization
Compare and contrast, or distinguish between mitosis and meiosis (including stages within mitosis and
meiosis)
Mitosis
Meiosis
# of Daughter
Cells Produced
2 identical cells
4 unique cells
Location
Somatic cells (mitosis can also produce
gametes in most plants and fungi)
Gametes (reproductive cells)
# of cytoplasmic
divisions
One
Two
Chromsome
Number
2n (ploidy stays the same)
N (ploidy is halved)
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