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Bio 2290.Exam notes.all 3 units.docx

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Biology 2290F/G
Irene Krajnyk

K-UNIT Scientific method  Logical approach in studying something you observed to gain new knowledge.  Aspects: 1. Observation 2. Experimentation 3. Communication a. Write scientific article for journal b. Orally present at a conference (powerpoint) c. Poster presentation at a conference Objective  Statement of intent about the experiment you’re doing. Predictions  Directional statements predicting outcome Experimental design: biology is more important than statistics  3 basic principles 1. control 2. replication 3. randomization Hypothesis: tentative explanation of observed phenomenon  full Latin names  dependent/independent variables  null is always the one tested using statistical tests o accepted or rejected o hypothesis can never be proved (only supported/disproved) o careful when making conclusions based on results Definitions:  descriptive statistics: organize/summarize data o Mean, SD, SE prediction: specific directional statements predicting the outcome.  Null hypothesis: hypothesis of no difference/changes/effects  Alternate hypothesis: hypothesis showing a diff/change/effect o Observed is different than the expected results  replication  treatment  control  randomization: every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected o ensure sample is representative of the population  protocol: detailed account of the experiment in sequential order o only in lab book o numbered o title o Latin name with authority; common name  Seeds of Cirsium pitcher (Torr. ex Eaton) Torr. & Gray o State brand names of equipment, controls, treatments, reps, variables o Cite statistical techniques o use protocol to write methods for scientific paper  experiment: planned investigation designed to obtain new scientific info  significance level: usually 0.05. provides scientist w/ objective criterion for accepting/rejecting H 0  flow chart: diagram of the steps in sequential order  methods: take relevant info from protocol o Seeds of Pitcher’s thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) Anova  Looks at diff b/w means of 3 or more treatments  If Fcalculatedble) > Fcriticalven), we reject H0 Tukey  Look at where significant differences exist b/w means Poster: see pg 133 Why use statistical techniques 1. Obtain an objective interpretation of the results 2. To be able to explain the biological significance of the organism with respect to the experimental objectives D-UNIT Light  350-700 nm  Reflected, transmitted, absorbed Transmittance (T)  Fraction of the incident light that passes through the sample Where I oradiant power of the incident light I =radiant power of the light that passes through Lambert’s law  Same proportion of light is absorbed regardless of the I oor a thin layer of sample A = log Beer’s law  Absorbance of a solution is proportional to the number of absorbing particles, or concentration of material, in solution A = E x l x c Where A = absorbance E = absorption coefficient (liters/mol/cm) o Probability that a given type of photon will be absorbed by a type of molecule c = concentration
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