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Chem2213A Final Exam Notes

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Chemistry 1027A/B
Felix Lee

Chemistry 2213A Final Exam2AcidsBases Feature Acidlook at CB stability Baselook at base stability 1 Electronegativity EN increases A stability strong hold for lone e increases acid strength decreases base strength 2 Atomic Size spreads out charge increasesacid strength going down a column size more important than EN 3 Hybridization sorbitals are lowest in energy23spspsp 4 Induction EWG stabilize A increases EWG make e less available acid strength decrease acid strength 2XOspHCH3 effects are cumulative effects call off with distance 5 Resonance Stabilization stable A increases acid stabilizes lone electrons strength decreases base strength 6 Solvation acids dissociate less in non polar solvents no H bondsIsomers 1 Constitutional structural Isomers compounds that have the same molecular formula but different bonding sequences 2 Molecular Conformations short lived spatial arrangements of atoms resulting from the rapid rotation around single bonds different shapes of the same isomer 3 Stereoisomerism have the same molecular formula and the same bonding sequence but have different noninterconverting 3D architectures a cistrans cycloalkanes and alkenes bearing two or more different substituents that can occupy two different positions relative to the approximate plane cissame transopp Zsame Eopp b Chirality not superimposable on their mirror images as they have no plane of symmetry most common source is a stereocentre usually a carbon bonded to four different substituents 4 Regioisomers structural isomers formed by reactions alkenesForming one isomer in greater amount is said to be regioselectiveElectrophilic reactions are usually highly regioselective 5 Enantiomers share the same bonding sequence the same formula and the same number and type of functional groups same chemistry BUT have different effects on plane polarized lightRaecemic mixture has no effect on plane polarized light because the rotations cancel out 6 Diasteriomers stereoisomers of a chiral compound with 1 stereocentre that are NOT enantiomers have different chemical properties 7 Meso achiral compounds containing two or more stereocentres have plane of symmetryHave zero rotation of plane polarized light 8 Tautomerism ketoenol interconversion involving only the movement of H from one atom to another If carbon is chiral tautomers create a raecemic mixture
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