9 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

ROMAN FINAL EXAM - APRIL 2014 MARCH 17 – AUGUSTAN ART, THE ROMAN HOSE/WALL PAINTING, THEY CITY OF ROME (157-164 [art+poetry only], 101-108, 124-129, 135-147) CHAPTER 7 – LATIN LITERATURE CONTINUED 157-164 Lyric Poetry: Catullus and Horace -Lyric poetry: where the composer presents his or her personal thoughts and feelings; took over from Greek metres and employed them in more precise form to express themselves poetically -Gaius Catullus (c.84-54BC) • Came to Rome in the wave of ‘new poets’ who were reacting against their elders through boozing, whoring and living it up • Only 116 poems known of • Wrote in the passion of the moment -Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65-8BC) • Had more leisure and time than Catullus to put his thoughts into lines which were more graceful and artifice however having less emotion • Became civil service clerk and wrote in spare time > caught the eye of the Virgil who introduced him to his own patron • 17 Epodes and 103 Odes in 4 books: political, satirical and love Virgil -Publius Vergilius or Virgilus, Maro (70-19BC) • wrote the Aeneid, the epic of the empire of Rome and of Roman nationalism (arguably most influential poem in any language unfinished) • Aeneid: deliberate continuation of Homer’s Iliad Elegiac Poetry: Propertius and Ovid -Sextus Propertius (c.50-c.15BC) • First book of elegies gave his success and popularity • Academic allusions and melancholy -Publius Ovidius Naso (43BC-AD 18) • Much evidence through his own poems to forma picture of a literary philanderer • At height of his powers and popularity he was banished by Augustus for life • Born into equestrian family, destined for politics, studied law and rhetoric • Wrote about societal wrongs such as adultery and sexual acts with high ranking women • Ars Amatoria was banned from 3 public libraries in Rome as was himself • 15 books of Metamorphoses, his most lasting and influential work were written in hexameters CHAPTER 5 – SOCIETY AND DAILY LIFE 101-108 -roman society under both the republic and the empire was very rigid and structured -inherent social and economic factors ensured that inequality was maintained -top ranks were able to manipulate the legal system -for lower system, land meant wealth and could remain in the family through natural or adopted heirs -old patrician aristocracy died out when republicanism come about > replaced by the nobility comprised of families of patricians and wealthy plebeians who had been in senate > nobility comes to be the ruling class -new equestrian class emerged = Gaius Gracchus allowed non-senators with 400,000 sesterces the right to bid for tax collection in the provinces and have control over jury-courts -Augustus created new senatorial order; he chose; wore togas with purple • senators and family forbidden from participating in public spectacles to avoid bad publicity • also raised qualification from 400,000 sesterces (equestrian) to 1 million sesterces -rich grew richer, poor grew poorer • city plebs/plebs urbana: composed of artisans, shopkeepers, ruined peasants • 14 AD election of state officials now done by senate = new division of society emerged: plebes with professions (teacher, tradesman, doctor) and plebes who received grain dole -Distinction between society in the capital and society in the towns of Italy • time of Augustus city officials diminished, lead to politically minded people to look for recognition in own town = basis for todays local government -early 2 AD on citizens and noncitizens were either honestiores (men of privilege-sentenced to temp. banishment) or humiliores (men of humble rank- sentenced to hard labour) each with separate punishments for same crime Traditional Values and Customs -Romans sticklers for tradition and order -mos maiorum “the way or custom” of our ancestors system created to support obsession with law making, covered all aspects of public and daily life (foreshadowed the downfall of the republic) -familia means not just family or household but can refer to entire male line of household or all the slaves belonging to house/farm -domus means house/home but also refer to relatives outside the particular household (sometimes including the female line of a household) -male and female expected to possess pietas, combination of duty, devotion and loyalty -gravitas: sense of duty, dignified reserve and integrity Economy and Money -many public holidays and public entertainment free -economy of ancient Rome complex • imports of grain, olive and wine huge • only certain portion of society could be consumers • mass production of pottery and lamps • lots of $ spent on public works, entertainment and military -emperors had many resources (some used to improve roads and social programs) Work -romans usually worked 6 hour day -building industry: skilled labour in form of architects, surveyors, supervisors, foremen, sculptors, stonemasons, carpenters and brickworks managers -in the city: whole and retail markets, craftsmen, shops, taverns, inns -upper class law or politics, since professional jobs were now taken by freedmen CHPATER 5 CONT – SOCIETY AND DAILY LIFE 124-129 Education -beginning of the republic, education left to mos maiorum, left to parents discretion (martial arts and practical arts -from 250 BC influx of educated Greek slaves = tutors were employed in richer homes or were set up as teachers in informal schools -near end of republic, two-tiered education system set up, leading to higher education in oratory or philosophy -formal education stopped for girls around 12, but boys were good at school went on if their parents could afford to grammar school Dress -ingenuity and ability to use basic materials and principles seen in their clothing -outer garment, toga for men and palla for women standard formal dress for a roman citizen food and Drink -not great meat eaters -staple food of most romans at home were porridge and bread -wine national and natural drink usually diluted with water -wine also used to cook with when honey added CHAP 6 – ART, ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING 135-147 -roman sculpture reached its peak in first and second centuries AD -development of the arch, vault and the dome and the sue of concrete which gave distinction and serviceability to roman domestic/public architecture and civil engineering Sculpture -Two main influences in developing sculpture 1. the worship and reverence of images (gods, goddesses, dead ancestors) 2. the recording of ritualistic and triumphant events in bas-relief on pillars, arches and tombs -sculpture during late republic was breathtaking -life size figures of Augustus and his family, offices of state senators, and priests -columns with relief a popular type of sculpture Painting and Mosaics -in imperial times painting weren’t portable and were mostly used to cover walls of rooms (frescoes) -frescoes often depict Greek mythology; landscapes to give impression of window; still-life’s -art of mosaic originates from Babylon – popular with Ptolemaic Egyptians -mosaic spread throughout roman outposts and represents roman pictorial art Gem engraving -incising portraits; rings to denote status Domestic Architecture -early roman townhouse known as the atrium was a single room -around 2 century, Greek influence changed roman house with more rooms, garden court and colonnaded passages -houses usually one story -urban congestion a problem in Rome from early times for the rich: villa rustica a glorified farmhouse, villa urbana retreat from the city -100 BC central heating through hot air furnace invented The Architecture of Public Buildings -romans didn’t invent arch but used it to their advantage -form the Greeks they took three orders of architecture: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian and then added a hybrid of their own, the Composite -roman architects less concerned with exterior as with interior space -empire kept together by a network of roads -triumphal arches -arches could span wide spaces with little material -Pont du Gard, most notable water channel MARCH 24 – THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS, WOMEN, SLAVERY, THE FLAVIANS (49-72, 109-123, 181-195) CHAP 3 CONT – TWELVE CAESARS 49-72 Tiberius -Tiberius Claudius Nero (Caesar Augustus) • born November 16 42 BC • strong, tall, left handed, white hair th • 4 choice, sense of inferiority • sent to command imperial armies outside Italy 4 AD; came back for a short time but left in AD 26 for good Caligula -Gaius Caesar (Augustus) Germanicus • born in 12 AD • nephew of Tiberius • fell ill > epilepsy > affected his mental state and became irrational • introduced heavy taxation, display executions, conspiracies Claudius -Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero (Caesar Augustus) Germanicus • born august 1, 10 BC • given chance to be emperor instead of killed > an author who knew nothing of administration/government • most known initiate led to the first successful full-scale invasion of Britain Nero -Nero Claudius Caesar (Augustus) Germanicus • artistic, erratic and most certainly deranged • had people killed without trial • committed suicide when faced with murder Galba -Servius Sulpicius Galba (Caesar Augustus) • born December 3 BC • Nero called him out to govern Spain • his accession marked end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty • also showed how an emperor can emerge from Rome and be appointed elsewhere Otho -Marcus Salvius Otho (Caesar Augustus) • born April 32 AD • was to overcome Vitellius through civil war upper and lower Germany advanced into northern Italy • his army committed suicide and surrendered Vitellius -Aulus Vitellius (Augustus Germanicus) • born September 15 AD • appointed to lower German by Galba but had little military skill • tried to invade Rome but was hunted down and tortured to dea
More Less

Related notes for Classical Studies 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.