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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

Latin terms: Early Rome/Etruscans: rex sacorum - king of sacrifices regia - king’s building Tyrsenoi, Tyrrheni, Etrusci where did the etruscans come from? - arrived from the east (herodotus) or authochthonous bucchero - pottery of etruscans tryphe - luxury Roman Republic: fasti - “calendar” - list of magistrates pomerium - sacred boundaries of the city domus - “home” militia - the area of military service i.e. outside imperium - command imperator - emperor gentes - family/clan groups populus - people (suggests the army) res publica populi Romani - communal affairs of the roman people - republic patricians vs plebs Punic Wars: Pax Romana - the roman peace - peace will come if you listen to the romans Poeni - Punic corvus - boat Fabius Cunctator - Delayer The Collapse of the Roman Republic: novus homo - new man - not a part of the imperial family imperator togatus - victorious general in a toga clementia - clemency - spared his enemies - looked like arrogance hoc volurant - they wanted this - the civil war with Julius Caesar Cleopatra kai su teknon - you too, child? Augustan Age: Res Gestae - the achievements of the divine augustus princeps - first among equals auctorius - right of ownership - influence, authority Roman Art: opus tessellatum - squares, mortar opus uermiculatum - small pieces, looks like portrait opus sectile - large stones Emblemata - panels of mosaic Ara Pacis - altar of augustan peace bolla - apotropaic faute linguis - be favourable with your tongue Hellenic Philosophy: Stoic thought - Seneca - Physics, Doctrine, Ethics, Logic - Diogenes and Cynicism - dog, shameless ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Roman Religion: was not anthropomorphic at first - then had influence from the greeks in the augustan era dii numina - gods 12 roman gods - dii consentes - iuppiter, minerva, mars, venus, volcanus, neptunus, mercurius, apollo, ceres, vesta, diana, iuno janus - no greek counterpart - god of beginnings and water crossings - Octavius closed his temple Vesta - Hestia - the hearth was tended to by the ponifex maximus - and his 6 vestal virgins - if something was wrong with the state or if the virgins had sex, they would execute them by burying them alive mars - agricultural origins, wolf and woodpecker, at one point land and war intertwined, then you get mars - always an important god in rome - Mars Ultor - avenger Gradivus - marcher Jupiter - heavily hellenized - augustus wanted to portray himself like him Magic: magic was prowra religio - bad religion - was suspicious - had to do with arcanda mundi - secrets of the world - 2 theories of how magic emerged - came from the east (persia - magi = priest) - Plato -magical lore of zoroaster - persian god - or it was just a basic feature of the mediterranean world homer appeared to use magic in the Iliad and the odyssey - Circe - transformed men into swine using a rabdos - wand - athina carried one too - Iliad - healing wounds with incantations of epaoides - spells/over-singing notable witches - Circe(transformation) Medea (Circe’s niece - used material objects for magic) Canidia(horace - used high class roman’s liver to make a love potion) Erictho (Lucan - practiced necromancy) harmful magic - sympathetic magic - using a symbol to cause harm to the enemy - voodoo dolls contagious magic - using a part of the enemy to do magic on - hair, clothes, etc defixiones, katadesmoi - binding spells, pharmaka - potions, incantations, * curse tablets - small piece of lead, write the enemy, what you want done and the supernatural forces’s name down, the fold it, drive a nail through it, and then bury it, usually said aloud to make it more potent beneficial magic - incantations, potions, protective charms, amulets, healing magic *** exorcisms, purifications harmful and beneficial - love potions - beneficial for the lover, harmful for the beloved Magical techniques - onomata asema - uncanny words - emphasis on keeping secret knowledge - so utterance was common using nonsense words - same rhetoric used as religion material objects - almost anything was used, herbs, roots - rhizotomos - root cutter call upon small deities that could succumb under your influence - sometimes olympic gods would show up - oros - a spirit stuck on earth that could do your bidding for you magical terms - goes - world of the dead - necromancy - prophecies from the underworld - ventriloquism - stomach talking epodos - over-singer/spell caster pharmakeus/pharmakis - pharmaceutical means **** MOST COMMON magc = coercion - forcing the gods to do what you want - religion is just asking the gods for favours religion vs magic: suspicious - prowra religio - bad religion Latin - ueneficus - potion makers - turn any fluid into potion saga - prophetic woman - a witch distinguish between a wizard and agurtes - a priest that would go door-to-door selling magic and miracles social setting - ambivalent - in a way, seems like a good idea to force the gods to do your bidding, but it talks about secret knowledge, arcana mundi, and that is suspicious - especially with Canidia - they were scared of it Greek Spell Tablet- all purpose spell, spell to protect you from hectate, spell that tells hectate to prevent you from being executed, hectate against an enemy, counterspell for enemies Roman Literature: - captured greece captured the savage victor and taught them arts - horace - letter to augustus Roman prose - history - Livy (founding of rome) and Tacitus (all the wrong doings of emperors) - he was cynical philosophy - seneca and cicero oratory - cicero - gave insight to roman everyday life novels: Petronius - Satyricon - play on satire (social criticism) and satyr - wild sexual raunchy things - lower class in naples, - petronius arbitor - Nero’s petronius? - political allegory on nero’s reign? The Golden Ass - Apuleius - Lucian gets turned into an ass, isis turns him back - raised in north africa, religious allegory? Roman Drama - all adaptations of euripidian tragedy and greek new comedy ***Seneca wrote a version of agamemnon, not a translation, but a new version of it ennuis - grandfather of roman literature terence - the new menander, plautus - most prominent figure in comedy - Maccius - nickname - was of a stock character in farce - he broadened comedy - greek was jus situational - contaminato - took plays and inserted snipits of other plays into it also inserted musical numbers - virtuoso cantica - duets after the fall of the republic - vary’s Thyestes, and Ovid’s Medea **Broad humor - Plautus fond of name puns - like aristophanes - he would use greek names and put a twist on them - was there a hierarchy of comedy? Artotrogus - cake eater had varied plots - Casina - transvestite camp - mistaken identity - Amphitruo M character study - Auluania - had exotic plots, because it was safe to laugh at others, not themselves - pulled themselves out of the situation Roman Satire - something that was totally roman - roman tradition of freedom of speech - Lucilius - grandfather of roman satire - Horace, Persius, Juvenal - influential Prose Satire - Seneca - Apocolcyntosis - pumpkinification - a play on the worl apotheosis - talks about how claudius is inarticulate, doesnt make it to becoming a divinity, and praises the ascent of nero, and how he is the returner of the golden age of rome - Claudius on his death bed - instead of the famous words - oh dear i think im becoming a god - he says oh dear i think i shat myself Roman Epic - no evidence of oral tradition of epic in rome - first real epic was by Livius Andronicus - a translation of the odyssey - Ulixes = odesseus changed some of the meaning to to suit roman sensibilities - do not praise heroes to the level of gods - Morta = fates, Camena = Mousa Vergil’s Aeneid - on of the greatest works in augustan period - vergil’s patron was Meacenus - he was a man of augustus - this was meant to be propaganda - but is not regarded in that sense, has a lot to say about the human condition - follows trojan hero aeneas on his mission to find a new troy, stops off in cathage, has an affair with queen dido, then is reminded of his imperial mission, has to sacrifice his happiness for the good of his country, this ends badly, reason for the punic wars, then takes a trip to the underworld, meets his dad, tells him the prophecy of the roman future - says augustus is the pinnacle of it, then once he reaches italy, there is war - he fights, he becomes dehumanized in the eyes of the audience - he is a machine just fufilling his duty - this is a combination of homeric tradition and ennuian tradition of historical epic ***historical epic - Naeveus - Bellum Poenicum - punic wars Ennius - Annalus - history of the founding of rome right until the augustan period -> another epic - Ovid’s Metamorphosis - a combination of short narratives all focusing on the them of transformation - i.e. daphne and apollo, she turns into a tree - this is witty, funny, tragic - myths are told in a pseudo history Lucans - Bellum Cirili - Civil war - thn others just continue vergil and ovid Personal poetry - Catullus - Lyric poetry - Horace Love Elegy - Catullus, Tibullus, Ovid, Propertius Catullus’ poems - one about when he vsits Bithynia and visits his brother;s grave - describes funerary rites - then a whole collection of the passion then hatred of lover Lesbia - real name is Clodia, but he calls her this because his influence is sappho - would wrote in the style of alexandrian poetry as well - odi et amo - i hate and i love **** Latin epic - had stresses, unlike Greek Roman Law: there are 3 law sources - statutes - comitia - passed by the assembly - binding laws - injunction of the magistrates - annual edict of the Praetor - important for private law - custom and usage - these were not written down, unlike the greeks - strong tie between culture and low - nomos - means culture and religion - constitutional law the lex/leges duodicum tabultarum - the 12 tablets - a response by the elites to have a fixed law - modeled athenian legal system - fomalized customs into binding laws - addressed theft, assault, slavery, funerals, spell casting, killings - they were private laws but the romans didnt want to make that distinction Codification of Law - in later republic, consolidated 3 ares into codified laws - ius - roman jurists - were like modern day lawyers, were aristocrats who were aware of the courts, would advice clients on what to do in court The Digest - the excerpts of roman jurists put together by the Byzantine emperor Justinian - this was influential to the modern western world Roman Law and courts - 2 models: impartial arbitrator how would act as an advocate to both parties - this was most common a paterfamilias would call upon his friends to talk about crimes committed in the familia - this was in most cases Chief exceptions - perduellio - violence threat against the state - didn’t happen once the emperor was declared paterfamilias of the state concilium plebis - monetary penalties comitia centunata - done to the wealthy/politics - exiled or capital punishment 63 Bc - 7 criminal courts (quaestions perpetuae) - extorsion in provinces (rependuae) - forging money/will, treason (maiestus) - misuse of public funds (peculatus) - murder w/ weapons/poisons (uis) - electoral corruption (ambitus) Augustus added an 8th court for adultery Pompeii and Herculaneum: Pompeii - in 79 AD destroyed by mt Vesuvius - covered with ash, preserved very well, pliny the elder and younger both witnessed this, Elder went to rescure friends, Younger wroe about it and no one believed him until modern times - important evidence of public and private space organization - city damaged by pyroclastic surges, and then and earthquake Herculaneum - also destroyed by vesuvius, but was left in a different condition - has been inhabited continuously in antiquity,so small place to excavate Villa of the Papyri - owned by Pisones - they had a library filled with papyri that were carbonized, and they used multispectral imaging - was about greek philosophy Eruption of it in a video - first started to rain cast pumice stones/rocks, the the 1st pyroclastic surge occured at night in herculaneum, the 2nd at pompeii, bringing deadly gas, and the 3rd at pompeii, destroying everything Roman History - Succession and Emperors: after the augustan period, was the: Julio-Claudian Emperors - Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius
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