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Midterm #1 to Midterm #2.pdf

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 1000
David Lamari

The  Persian  Wars:  490  and  480-­‐478     Assyrians   • “Bandit-­‐Kings”  ▯  periodically  demanded  stuff  from  their  neighbour  but  didn’t   dominate  them     • Neighbours  and  Egyptians  ganged  up  on  them  and  were  destroyed       The  Rise  of  the  Persians   • Had  a  very  systematic  and  controlling  empire   –  collected  taxes,  etc.   • Took  their  neighbours  and  incorporated  them  into  the  empire     • King  was  named  Cyrus  (550-­‐530)   o Many  Jews  liked  Cyrus  because  they  freed  them  from  the   Assyrians   o Some  hated  him   • Zoroastrianism:    the  Persian  religion     • Conquered  Lydia   • Darius  becomes  king   o Hippias  the  Pesistratid  (the  exiled  Athenian  tyrant)  fled  to  the  Persians  to  help   them         The  Ionian  Revolt   • Aristagoras  (tyrant  of  Miletus)  owed  money  to  the  Persian  King   o Started  to  revolt  hoping  that  he  wouldn’t  have  to  pay  him  back   • The  Athenians  decided  to  help  the  Greek -­‐speaking  Ionian  cities     • Athens  sent  20  ships  (aprox  3,000  men)   ▯  trained  the  Ionians  how  to  fight     • Marched  to  Sardis  and  attacked  and  burnt  it  down       1  Persian  Invasion   • Darius  (King  of  Persia)  sent  messengers  to  At hens  and  demanded  submission  of  water   and  earth  (symbolic  gesture  of  surrender)   ▯  so  Athenians  would  recognizes  the   authority  of  the  Persian  empire  and  become  a  part  of  it     • The  Greeks  did  not  comply  so  the  Persians  decided  to  invade   • 25  000  Persians  sailed  and  landed  at  Marathon   • Athens  asked  for  the   Spartan’s  help  but  they  had  a  religious  festival       • The  Athenians  at  Marathon  devised  a  battle  plan  to  encircle  the  Persian  army  (stood   side  by  side  with  shields)   o The  Athenians  won  by  the  improvised  battle  strateg y     o Athenians  were  the  first  to  be  a  small  group  of  people  (9,000  vs.  25,000)  against   a  massive  army  and  win     o PRIDEFUL  EVENT  IN  ATHENIAN  HISTORY       Themistocles   • Fought  at  Marathon  and  was  a  leading  politician   • Shortly  after  the  battle  at  Marathon  they  discove red  a  silver  mine  that  became  public   property     • Themistocles  convinced  them  to  used  the  money  to  build  the  largest  navy  in  the  world   and  a  harbor  because  the  Persians  would  return     o They  created  a  new  ship  that  had  3  levels  of  men  rowing     o Had  great  rowing  ta ctics  –  could  turn,  reverse,  accelerate   o Created  a  quality  and  expert  fleet     The  Great  Persian  Invasion   • Darius  died  and  his  son  Xerxes  became  king   • 10  years  after  the  battle  at  Marathon  Xerxes  was  planning  an  invasion     • Collected  men  from  the  entire  Persian  empire     o Used  a  circular  structure  to  count  the  amount  of  soldiers   o Estimated  500,000  men  and  1,000  ships     • Some  of  the  Greek  polis  surrendered  to  the  Persians  (about  ½)   • Sparta  and  its  allies  and  Athens  did  not  surrender       Battle  at  Thermopylae   • Sparta  decided  to  make  a  stand  north  of  Athens  at  Thermopylae  (mountains)   • Would  corner  the  Persians  into  these  mountains     • Spartans  were  successful  at  holding  off  the  Persians   • Persians  gained  a  tip  to  go  around  Thermopylae  and  they  c ould  attack  the  Spartans   and  Athenians  from  the  other  side   o Caused  some  of  the  Spartans  to  retreat  and  300  stayed  to  hold  the  Persians   there  ▯  very  courageous  but  died     • Persians  continued  on  and  burned  down  Athens  and  everyone  that  stayed  behind  in   Athens  was  burned     Battle  at  Salamis   • Themistocles  tricked  the  Persians  and  told  them  to  come  during  the  night  so  the   Persians  could  “trap”  the  Greeks   o The  Athenian  fleet  sailed  right  into  the  Persian  Army  and  skillfully   defeated  them     • Xerxes  in  panic  to  the  fleet  back  to  Persian  and  left  the  rest  of  the  army  and  the   commander  to  fend  for  themselves     • Once  in  Persia,  Xerxes  told  the  commander  to  offer  the  Athenians  that  the   Persians  would  rebuild  their  polis  and  make  it  the  capital  of  Gre ece  ▯ATHENIANS   DIDN’T  AGREE     Battle  at  Plataea  and  Mycale     • Athenians  continued  to  fight     • Inflicted  further  damage  on  the  Persian  Army  –  freeing  Athens  from  the  Persians                          HOPLITE:     • Greek  soldier   • Shield,  spear,  amour  protection  up  to  legs     • Fought  in  a  phalanx  (stand  side  by  side)   • Created  a  problem  for  the  Persians  because  they  mainly  fought  with  bows  and   arrows     • Persians  are  depicted  as  soft  and  feminine  as  a  result,  and  the  Greeks  are  strong   and  manly       STRONG  SENSE  OF  “GREEKNESS”   –  THEY  ARE  SUPERIOR  TO  EVERYONE  ELSE     Aftermath  of  the  Persian  Wars     • Ionian  cities  were  now  free  from  Persian  dominance  and  they  did  not  know  how  they  should  be   ruled   • Looked  to  the  Spartans  ▯  proposed  that  the  Ionians  should  move  to  mainland  and  the  Spartans   would  protect  them     o Pausanias  was  a  general  of  the  Spartan  army   ▯ He  made  himself  obnoxious  to  the  rest  of  the  greeks   ▯  dictated  (“war  like”   mindset)  ▯  caused  the  execution  of  Sparta  from  the  league     ▯ Told  the  Ionians  to  become  like  Greece     • Ionians  instead  looked  to  Athens  because  of  their  status  and  their  superior  naval  fleet     • MANY  POLIS  WANTED  TO  JOIN  ATHENS         The  Delian  League:  477     Delian  League     • The  problems  of  a  Spartan  commander,  Pausanias,  led  to  the  formation  of  the  league,   and  the  exclusion  of  Sparta     • The  Athenians  started  an  alliance  of  150  different  polis   (including  almost  all  of  the   Ionians)   • Compensate  selves  for  war  by  ravaging  territory   of  Persia  and  take  the  money  they  get   and  bring  it  back  to  Athens   o The  raids  were  exceedingly  successful  and  all  members  profited     • In  this  league  each  member  annually  would  contribute  either  ships  or  money   ▯  this   was  supervised  by  Athenian  officials  called   ‘Hellentamiai’  –  treasurers  of  the  Greeks     o Athens  would  build  ships  for  other  Greek  polis  or  those  polis  could  contribute   their  own  ships   • They  would  keep  track  of  how  much  each  polis  gave   each  year  to  the  Athenian  fleet     Themistocles:  abandoned  the  League   Cimon:  took  over  the  league     • Carried  the  campaign  against  Persia  into  Asia  Minor  and  defeated  Xerxes  forces   on  land   • The  Persians  eventually  retreated  from  the  Ionian  coast,  freeing  the  polis       The  Athenian  Empire:  469-­‐445     • The  Delian  league  eventually  beca me  the  Athenian  Empire     o Everyone  had  to  contribute  if  they  were  going  to  benefit  from  the  league/empire   • Athens  began  to  just  ask  for  money  to  rebuild  their  city     • Athens  also  decided  to  build  a  new  harbor   ▯  polis  decided  to  compete  to  whom  would   have  this  harbor  in  their  city     • Even  though  the  Delian  League  was  no  longer  needed,  many  Athenians  did  want  to  do   away  with  it     o It  became  increasingly  imperialistic  and  the  Athenians  gained  more  and  more   power     o Many  polis  were  not  allowed  to  leave   • Megara  and  Corinth  (part  of  the  Peloponnesian  league)  wanted  the  Spartans  to  interfere   with  the  Athenians  treatment  of  other  polis   ▯  but  the  Spartans  were  not  interested   because  they  didn’t  see  Athens  as  a  big  force     • Athens  makes  an  alliance  within  the  Pel oponnese  with  Megara,  who  were  an  enemy  of   Sparta     • Sparta  declared  war  on  Athens  in  457   • Athens  did  not  take  this  seriously  as  they  sent  an  army  to  Egypt  and    us   o This  was  a  massive  failure  and  40000  men  died   o This  started  up  a  series  of  defections   within  the  Delian  Lea   • This  forced  Sparta  to  take  action  because  they  realized  Athens  wanted  to  create  an  empire     o Athens  and  Sparta  made  a  “peace  treaty”  that  Athens  could  not  expand  its  empire   but  whoever  was  in  the  empire  currently  had  to  remain  in  the  empire   o The  peace  was  supposed  to  last  30  years   –  only  lasted  15       The  long  Walls   • Athens  built  walls  around  their  city  and  down  the  road  to  their  harbor     • No  army  could  get  access  to  Athens  besides  going  through  their  harbor  meaning  they   would  have  to  defea t  the  superior  Athenian  fleet     • This  would  defend  Athens  from  Sparta       Athenian  Democracy  (509-­‐  458)     Radical  Democracy   • Athens  was  moving  towards  a  community  of  free  expression   –  RADICAL  DEMOCRACY   • Two  new  ideas  were  created  at  this  time :   1. Isonomia   ▯ The  law  should  be  applied  to  everyone  equally   ▯ Everyone  is  under  the  same  law     2. Ekklesia     ▯ An  assembly  where  everyone  speaks  out  and  all  opinions  are  heard     Athenian  Officials     • The  goal  was  to  decrease  the  power  of  a  single  ruler  and  create  a  wider  democratic  base   • There  was  no  supreme  leader   o Pericles  was  in  control  for  his  lifetime   • The  Athenian  year  was  split  into  10  parts  (36  days)  each  called  a   prytany     • There  multiple  councils  made  up  o f  several  men:   i. 10  archons     ▯ Carry  out  and  execute  the  laws     ▯ Chosen  at  random  from  a  list     ▯ Chosen  every  year     ii. The  Boule  –  Council  of  500   ▯ Council  of  500  had  power  of  deciding  what  people  were  going  to  vote   on  and  when  they  were  going  to  vote   ▯ Subdivided  into  10  groups  that  each  served  for  a  prytany         iii. Areopagus   ▯ A  body  composed  of  ex -­‐archons     ▯ Jurisdiction  over  all  cases  except  homicide  were  transferred  to  the   popular  courts  ▯  so  people  monopolized  the  administration  of  justice     iv. The  Popular  Assembly  -­‐  Ekklesia     ▯ An  assembly  where  everyone  speaks  out  and  all  opinions  are  heard   ▯ Met  on  a  hill  –  the  Pynx  –  approximately  every  10  days  (40   meetings/year)   ▯ Any  citizen  could  attend   –  but  had  to  be  an  Athenian  man  over  18   ▯ Would  post  a  list  to  the  public  on  what  was  going  to  be  up  for   debate/vote  ▯  people  would  decide  on  these  things  by  show  of  hands     Ostracism   • Citizens  have  complete  power  over  what  happens   • If  one  powerful  individual  was  endangering  the  democracy  at  the  next  meeting   everyone  would  write  down  a  name  and  whoever  had  the  most  votes  would  be  kicked   out  of  Athens  for  10  years     • Was  used  to  ensure  that  no  one  became  dominant  over  the  people   • Some  people  were  very  manipulative/persuasive  and  could  be:   a. Rhetors:   ▯ Someone  who  is  good  at  speaking   b. Sophists:   ▯ Someone  who  knows  how  to  appear  wise   ▯  can  make  a  bad  argument   look  good     • This  caused  the  democracy  to  be  controlled  by  a  small  group  that  were  persuasive       Drawbacks     • System  was  not  designed  for  efficiency,  but  was  a  search  for  ‘true’  democracy   • Experts  were  almost  never  used,  uninformed  individuals  made  all  decisions     • There  was  no  one  leader  for  other  leaders  to  deal  h   • Many  rash  decisions  occurred  that  were  products  of  fear  and  misinformation     • Socrates  attacked  this  system     o The  Athenians  were  like  children  who  needed  instant  gratification  for  any   needs  and  do  not  understand  the  consequences  of  their  actions     o He  thought  that  a  democratic  man  will  wake  up  and  decided  to  switch  who  he  is   every  day,  resulting  in  no  work  getting  done     Greek  Law     No  Public  Prosecutor   • If  someone  broke  the  law  you  had  to  sue  them  in  court     • A  jury  would  be  selected  by  the  ‘archon  of  the  law’  ▯  PAID  FOR  JURY  DUTY     • Could  have  a  sophist  or  rhetor  write  you  a  script  so  you  were  more  likely  to  win  the  case     • The  whole  court  process  had  to  be  done  quickly  so  there  was  no  chance  of  bribery   • Person  who  is  suing  would  propose  a  penalty  and  person  being  sued  would  propose  a   penalty  ▯  the  jury  picks  which  is  a  better  penalty       Amateurism     • People  would  take  each  other  to  court  for  petty  or  political  reasons     • The  jury  was  usually  made  up  of  elderly  people  (stuck  in  old  ways)  or  unemployed   people       5  stages  of  a  Greek  lawsuit     • You  had  to  attempt  to  make  an  arbitrary  with  the  other  person  (in  f ront  of  a  third  party)   (settled  minor  things)     • Had  to  go  to  a  public  official  (the  law  magistrate/archon),  who  was  responsible  to  set  a   date  for  the  court  case  (would  ask  the  prosecutor/defendant  to  bring  all  of  their   witnesses  and  resources  to  him  a  short  period  of  time  before  the  court  date)  (trials  were   only  allowed  to  take  one  day)  (In  Greek  law  the  jury  has  the  right  to  hear  anything,  so   the  participants  are  allowed  to  say  whatever  they  want)  (The  jury  was  responsible  to   decide  based  on  which  argument   was  more  compelling)     • You  were  allowed  to  get  logographers  to  write  speech’s  for  you     • The  jury  always  had  to  be  an  odd  number  (201  jurors  up  to  2501  jurors)  (concerned   about  democracy  not  efficiency)  (If  prosecutor  does  not  get  20%  of  the  vote  they  lose   their  right  to  prosecute)  (There  is  no  appeal,  the  people  were  considered  supreme)     • The  sentencing  (stages  3  through  5  must  be  done  in  one  day)       Logographers     • People  who  wrote  speech’s  for  participants     • Made  good  money  off  of  this  and  often  would  play  on  the  jury’s  whims       Jury  problems     • Aristocrats  did  not  like  this  (were  very  class  biased)     • The  kind  of  people  that  would  volunteer  to  be  jurors  were  (poorer  people,  people  who   cannot  work,  elderly  people)     • Had  to  be  30  years  or  older  and  male  to  be  a  juror  (were  typically  older)     • The  most  obvious  problem  with  democracy  and  democratic  law  was,  that  although   anyone  could  speak  and  everyone  was  considered  equal,  the  reality  was  certain   individuals  dominated  through  an  increased  level  of  speaking  ability  (typically  self -­‐ confident  people)     • Certain  people  had  the  ability  to  bend  the  will  of  their  listeners  (would  intimidate  other   citizens)     • These  people  were  referred  to  as  “speakers”  (knew  the  proper  slander,  innuendo  and   fear  mongering  to  terrorize  their  opposition)       Socrates     • Was  sued  for  not  believing  in  the  Gods     • Opponent  proposed  death  as  a  penalty   • Socrates  proposed  that  his  penalty  is  that  he  should  get  free  meals  for  life  as  a   philosopher     • Jury  had  to  pick  the  death  penalty  because  of  Socrates  ridiculous  proposal           Classical  Greek  Art  and  Architecture     Archaic  Period   • Emphasis  on  accurately  representing  the  human  form     o They  became  very  adept  at  this   o Kouros  male     Classical  Period   • The  development  of  classical  art  is  not  very  well  documented   o There  is  little  work  found  from  the   developmental  period   o Athens  was  the  center  of  art  and  culture  and  was  torched  at  the  time  by  the   Persians     • Characters  almost  always  had  an  archaic  smile  and  beaded  hair     • Greek  artists  used  both  human  and  divine  elements  in  their  art   ▯  NATURAL  LIFE     • Classical  art  can  be  distinguished  from  Archaic  as  it  is  more  austere,  due  to  the  loss  of   influence  of  the  East   • Relief  sculpture  is  very  common  in  antiquity     o A  key  example  is  the  temple  of  Zeus  at  Olympi   o There  are  several  sculptural  groups  seen  in  the  pediments     ▯ A  scene  of  human  restoring  order  to  some  centaurs     ▯ There  is  also  a  scene  with  Apollo  and  a  chariot  scene  o  Grave  markers   are  seen   ▯ The  girl  with  a  dove  is  an  example  of  this • Vases  provide  most  of  the  clues  pertaining  to  everyday  life,  as  thousands  have  s urvived   o Many  different  scenes  are  presented  including  domestic  tasks,  prostitution  and   labour       Kritios  Boy  (3’10”)  (pg  179)   • Sculptor  ▯  Critios     • More  relaxed  than  archaic  period   o More  ASSYMETRICAL     o Weight  is  shifted,  etc.     Head  of  Apollo  –  Pediment  of  temple  of  Zeus  at  Olympia  (pg  180)   • Among  the  battle  of  the  Lapiths  and  Centaurs     • Outstretched  arm,  looks  calm  despite  the  suggested  surrounding  of  a  battle     • Depicts  the  ideal  male  beauty       Bronze  statue  of  Poseidon  or  Zeus  (pg  181)   • More  of  a  dynamic  pose     • About  to  hurl  a  trident/thunderbolt                 Diskobolos  –  Discus  thrower  (pg  183)   • Original  was  in  bronze,  more  of  a  flexible  medium     • Harmoniously  proportioned  and  represents  the  ideal  male  athlete     • All  statues  are  2D  (a  single  plane),  don’t  extend  out  into   space   o This  is  a  completely  different  body  posture  though   –  discus  player  but  it  is  still   graceful     • Recreated  multiple  times,  original  was  destroyed     o This  is  the  most  lifelike  stature  of  the  time       Delphi  Charioteer     • 5’  11’’   • It  was  a  votive  offering   • Made  of  bronze  with  copper  accents   ▯  unusual  because  bronze  statues  were  very   valued  and  rare  in  the  ancient  world  (marble  was  much  cheaper)   • Was  clothed,  since  charioteers  were  clothed  during  races   (all  other  athletes  competed   naked)   • Very  stiff  and  austere     • Has  ivory  eyeballs  and  onyx/ black  stone  pupils,  lips  more  naturalistic,  hair  becoming   more  Greek   • EXPRESSIONLESS  (dignified,  noble  face)   –  no  agony  or  other  expressions  in  this  time   period     Riace  Warriors     • Bronze  statues,  very  lifelike  and  accurate     o It  was  the  first  introduction  of  new  poses,  besides  the  anatomical  position   o More  perfect  anatomy  of  the  human  body       • 6’  9’’,  6’  ’   • They  were  lost  at  sea,  so  the  bronze  survived     o They  also  had  bronze,  silver  and  copper  accents  for  eyes,  nipples  and  lips       The  Doryphoros  (C.  440)     • ‘The  Spear  Carrier’     • 6’  11’’   • Replicated  multiple  times  throughout  antiquity     • Greeks  art  was  supposed  to  be  in  balance,  but  this  became  boring     • Contrapposto-­‐  balance  without  perfect  symmetry  or  rigidity     o These  is  fluidity  and  motion  to  the  statues     o Whatever  right  leg  is  doing  it  is  balanced  by  the  left  arm  and  vice  versa     Diadoumenos  (C.  430)     • The  ‘Fillet  Binder’   o Has  his  arms  up  tying  his  hair   • 6’  5’     Classical  Period:   • The  anatomy  of  the  human  body  is   perfected  (the  muscles)   • These  were  perfect  male  bodies     FEMALES  OF  THE  CLASSICAL  PERIOD     Nike  adjusting  her  sandal  (c.  420)     • Found  in  her  own  temple     • 6’  7’      Ordinary  Greek  women     • Women  are  usually  clothed,  but  gets  progressively  more   risqué     a. Mother  and  child     b. Ampharete  with  child     ▯ Looks  very  good  for  a  grandmother     c. Ludovisi  Throne     ▯ Erotic  art   ▯ Goddess  Aphrodite  coming  out  of  bath     • Women  were  also  sometimes  portrayed  not  sexually,  doing  other  things  in  their  lives     • Completely  naked  women  usually  referred  to  prostitutes       Greek  Architecture     • Naos  (Cella):  central  room  where  worship  occurs,  usually  with  a  statue     • Pronaos:  front  porch  of  central  room     • Colonnade  (peristyle) :  series  of  columns     o It  is  peristyle  when  the  columns  come  all  the  way  around   • Post  and  Lintel  construction   o They  only  used  columns  and  brick  walls  in  construction   o This  restricted  the  width  of  the  building     ▯ This  in  turn  resulted  in  longer  buildin gs     Acropolis     • Other  poleis  also  had  their  own  acropolises     • The  large  hill  in  the  middle  o f  Athens   • Was  originally  built  up  by  the  tyrant  Pisistratus     o Destroyed  by  Persians   • Was  rebuilt  using  Delian  League  funds  by  Pericles     o Called  the  ‘school  of  Greece’       The  Architectural  Orders:  Styles  of  Temples     • Doric  Temples   o Have  simple  columns  with  no   accentuation  factors   o Alternating  metopes  and  triglyphs  along  the  top  of  the  temple     ▯ 3  triglyphs/bars  and  then  a  picture   o Akroteria  were  little  statues  along  the  top  of  the  roof   o Pediments-­‐  Triangular  space  under  roof  and  above  bar  filled  with  reliefs  and   structures  (a  scene)   o Capital     • Ionic  Temples   o Has  more  decoration  with  curls,  twists  and  other  accentuating  factors     o One  long  continuous   frieze  along  the  tops  of  the  temple     o Ionic  temples  also  had  pediments   Temple  at  Aphaia,  Aegina,  500 -­‐480  BC     • Took  twenty  years  to  be  created     • Doric  temple   • Pediments     o Have  that  half  ‘archaic’  smile       Parthenon     • Funds  from  the  treasury  were  diverted  to  rebuilding  of  the  temple     • Was  a  blend  between  Dorian  and  Ionic  temples  ▯  mainly  Dorian     • The  Metopes  were  all  structured  around  different  themes     o On  the  south  side  it  was  men  fighting  with  centaurs/ lapiths     o On  the  west  it  was  Greeks   fighting  amazons   o The  east  were  the  Gods  fighting  the  Giants   o North  was  the  Greeks  vs.  the  Trojans     • The  pediments  (55’  up)     o The  west  pediment:  was  the  bat tle  between  Poseidon  and  Athena   o The  east  pediment:  was  the  birth  of  Athena   ▯ Wet  drapery   ▯ Bodies  gradually  turn  towards  center     • The  entire  temple  was  made  of  marble     • The  interior  frieze  (characteristic  of  ionic  temples)     o Runs  all  the  way  along  the  interior  walls   o Depiction  of  a  large  parade  (was  very  difficult  to  see)  of  the  Panathenaic   procession     o This  was  typically  not  done  (usually  looked  odd)   ▯  represented  the  unification   of  all  Greeks   • Statue  of  Athena  was  inside  the  temple,  was  holding   a  Nike  and  a  shield   • Erectheus:  was  a  snake,  the  first  king  of  Athens     o Snakes  were  a  symbol  of  health  and  good  luck       Erechtheion     • Was  more  normal  than  the  Parth enon     • Ionic  temple  –  has  a  frieze   • Multi  use  building  dedicated  to  Poseidon  and  Athena     • One  of  the  porch’s  is  held  up  by  woman  from  a  polis   o WAS  the  most  SIGNIFICANT  part  of  this  temple       Temple  to  Athena  Nike     • Athena  the  conqueror/  Athena  victorious     • Ionic     • Nike  adjusting  her  sandal  (6  foot  7)       Athenian  Red-­‐Figure  Vases:  500-­‐400     • A  negative  thin  impression  ▯  reversed  process,  background  black,  figures  remain  red     • Everything  that  showed  up  was  the  background     • Was  done  very  quickly  (incredibly  difficult )     • Could  display  muscles  and  facial  features  much  better     • Allowed  for  much  more  detail  than  Black -­‐figure  vases     • Artists  then  begin  to  experiment  with  brown,  purple  or  white  clays     • This  began  new  themes  (less  heroes,  more  introspective)     • Greeks  art  initially  based  on  realism;  slowly  moves  away  from  this       Athenian  Cup:  A  Girl  Going  to  Wash   • Relaxed  naturalism  ▯  only  partially  naturalistic       3D  Painting   • A  painter  by  the  name  of  Polygnotus  started  the  revolution  of  3D  painting     • Would  create  scenes  were  not  all  the  characters  were  on  the  same  base  line       Classical  Painting     • Apollodorus  ▯  first  painter  to  make  use  of  shadows,  made  it  more  realistic     • Zeuxis  ▯  did  not  believe  that  all  the  qualities  of  a  beautiful  woman  could  be  found  in   one  person  so  he  gathered  the  top  5  women         Lekythos   • Depicts  a  girl  playing  a  lyre  on  a  piece  of  pottery   • Suggested  that  she  is  a  muse  because  it  says  ‘helicon’   –  seat  of  the  muses     Greek  Drama     • The  Athenian  festival  is  the  biggest  theatrical  event  in  Greece  (highlight  of  Athenian   life)   • The  plays  took  the  place  of  priests   ▯  it  was  used  to  heal,  move  and  shape  the  people       Origins  of  Tragedy     • Originated  by  a  choir     • Would  often  sing  in  honour  of  a  particular  god  ‘Dionysius’   • Soloists  –  there  would  be  2  people  infront  of  the  backdrop  and  would  sing  back  and   forth  about  a  story  (like  an  OPERA)     Greek  Theatre   • ‘Theatre  –  a  place  to  go  and  look     • Had  an  orchestra  (a  place  for  dancing)  were  the   choir/chorus  would  perform  and  an   altar  (for   religious  sacrifices)   • Often  open  and  conclude  with  sacrifices  to   Dionysius     • Theatron  –  place  where  citizens  sit     • Proscenium  –  where  the  actors  would  perform     • Skene  –  had  the  backdrop  for  the  actors  (behind   has  storage  for  props  and  actors)   • Exits  –  on  either  side  of  stage         Costumes  and  Masks   • One  style  for  tragedy  (grimacing  face)  and  another  style  for  comedy  (smiling  face)   • Would  wear  foot  tall  platform  shoes  to  make  their  presence  on  the  stage  more  grand       City  Dionysia   • Athens  was  the  source  for  all  the  plays   –  playwrights  came  to  Athens  for  their  new   productions   • ‘City  Dionysia’  was  what  Athens  was  called  during  the  5  days  of  the  festival     • Started  by  Pisistratus     • The  government  shut  down  during  the  festival  (seen  as  a  holiday)   • No  entry  fee       Program     Day  1:        Worship  of  Dionysus  and  chorus  competition     Day  2-­‐4:        Performances  of  3  tragedies  and  one  satyr  play  (=  a   tetralogy)     Day  5:        Comedies  by  different  authors       Satyr  Play:   • Like  comedy  but  its  primary  purpose  is  to  make  fun  of  the  3  pays  that  were  just   preformed  before   • Used  to  relieve  the  mood  of  the  tragedies       Greek  Tragedy   • Chorus  ▯  sing  and  dance  very  formally     • All  done  in  poetry     • Plays  were  based  on  ancient  Greek  myths   ▯  playwrights  never  invented  stories     • Looked  at  how  the  playwright  adapted  the  myth  to  put  emphasis  on  a  certain  aspect     • Most  democratic  form  of  literature     • Cumulative  effect  –  repeated  a  lot  (chorus)       Aeschylus   st • The  1  and  the  ‘greatest’  Greek  tragedian     • Believed  in  grand  themes   ▯  JUSTICE     • Scientific  playwright     • Only  7  of  his  plays  survive     • 1 play  of  trilogy:  ‘Agamemnon’         The  Oresteia-­‐  trilogy  of  Oresteis,  mother  kills  the  father  for  killing  daughter   and  the  boy                                                              kills  the  mother  (avenges  his  father),  he  is  then  pursued  for  that  by  demon                                                                                                  spirits,  and  the  question  is  will  the  cycle  ever  stop?  (Aeschylus  made  a                                                                                              point  about  this  –  prime  focus  is  the  theme  of  the  law  of  justice)       Sophocles   • Created  grand  LAWS  ▯  he  who  is  bad  will  be  punished   • Believed  in  JUSTICE     • Was  more  interested  in  the   “character”  as  it  should  be  then  Aeschylus  was     • Usually  won  the  competition         Oedipus  Rex  -­‐  ended  up  killing  his  father  and  marrying  his  mother  (insisted  on  living  by                                                                his  own  code)         Antigone  –  a  sister  who  insists  on  burying  her  brother  (against  the  kings  will)     Euripides   • Least  successful  out  of  the  3  but  capture s  more  scholars  out  of  the  3   • Outlook  was  more  modern     • More  interested  in   people  as  they  are   • Did  NOT  believe  in  JUSTICE     • Eventually  kicked  out  of  Athens  and  died  in  exile         Medea  –  Foreign  woman  brought  into  Greece,  and  abandoned  by  her  husband  (because                      she  is  not  from  Greece)         Trojan  Women  –  the  women  of  troy  who  have  been  dragged  out  of  troy,  who  are  going            to  be  hauled  off  by  the  Greeks,  so  the  women  have  to  watch  their            children  get  killed         Hecabe       Bacchae  –  the  most  performed  tragedy  in  the  20th  century,  the  man  who  disregard  the                  Gods       Old  Comedy   • Coincides  w/  classical  period  of  Greece     • Freedom  of  speech  ▯  could  say  anything  about  anything     • Playwright  would  ridicule  anything  he  wanted  to  be  taken  out         Aristophanes  –  only  playwright  from  this  period       New  Comedy   • More  like  a  sitcom  (Seinfeld)   • Characters  are  l
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