Athletic Architecture
Purple ball of love from Eros?
o showing youth?
All the women from Lesbos were lesbians
Typical Athletic Complex
The Gymnasion was comprised of the
o Palaestra
o Gymnasion
o Bath House
When someone is talking about a gymnasion, it probably means the whole thing
o These are separate from the stadion
Vitruvius, Roman Architect, 1st C. AD
o Wrote a kind of manual for all these buildings
Palaistra
Peristyle- surrounded by collondes
o Open courtyard w/ Porticoes colonnades
o The central part has no roof, the open court yard
o Was used for the Pale, basically skamma was here
Sloping roof coming off the main building, and would be rested on the Peristyle, which are the columns
o They were made so they faced the north in a certain way
Exedrae- specific rooms, the larger rooms that don’t have doors that are semi-open with pillars
o They were there specifically so people could sit and receive lectures
Later this whole building becomes a school house, for philosophers etc.
o The main one on the north was always supposed to have benches
The ephebeion- ephebes, young men training to become citizens would be here
o To the right of the ephebeion
Korykeion- A room for the heavy bag
Loutron- A room for bathing, not the hot bath but just water like a sink
The hot bath was a Roman invention
Konisterion- A room with dust
o To the left..
Elaiothesion- room for storing oil
Funds called aleimmata (anointing oils) were probably administered here
o Others:
Apodyterion- undressing room
Sphairisterion- ball room
Bathing and Bathhouse
Olympia didn’t have one, but a separate place where one could bath
o Some had pouting water, some had basin, some were like a pool
Romans took bathing more seriously, and had many more baths compared to those of the reeks
Thus they also had toilets
The Palaistra at Delphi had no large central courtyard, but put great emphasis on baths, unlike Olympia
o Lack of water at Olympia
o Shower heads in vase paintings 6th and 5th century
Gymnasion
Textbook isn’t at best here
Has three walls
o First wall shared with the Palaistra
o Then there are two walls of perpendicular to that wall, sort of like a U-shape
Coming off of these wall are to roofs and the series of pillars found in the palaestrate
No 4th wall cause of discus and javelin
Dromos (Practice-Track)
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Underneath those porches/roof, people are practicing sprinting and such is called the dromos
Had two parts
o Xystos: covered track
Official Olympic victor list was kept here
The Xystos on the other side of the Olympian was washed away by Kladeos river
Olympian xystos also opposed Vitrvius ideals by having a double colonnade (double xystos)
o Paradromis- open track beside it, probably on the inside of the gymnasion
The paradromis at Delos was slightly sloped lower than the xystos to accommodate spectators.
Why replicate these gymnasion when the original ones are there?
They were out of the way for some towns
Having a practice gymnasion was a good mark for the state
City states probably used these gymnasion for both competition and practice, where as festival centers were
most likely to have separate ones (stadium vs gymnasion)
o Also signified a victory more
Decoration
Athletic Complex
Were pretty outside of town, was also a place for gathering, water source nearby etc.
Herms
Images of the god Hermes, whos penis was erect, and was supposed to be good luck, you found them
everywhere
o Many had the heads of the gymnasiarchoi
Athens 3 Public Gymnasia:
Platos Akademy, Aristotles Lyceum, Cynosarges
o First two were built by tyrant
Akademy had many Palastrae, was probably like a university campus
All outside the city walls, and by rivers
State-run w/ Private money
Palastrae 200x 200 feet
Private places tend to just be Palastrae
Education
Education in the Classical Era
not compulsory
Boys 7-14
o Private tutoring
o Discipline & memorization
o Arete & kalokagathia(looking good and being good)
o Don’t bother teaching a kid before 7
Boys 14+
o 3-4 yrs at the athletic complex
o Plato (Academy); Aristotle (Lyceum)
o Philosophy, Rhetoric, Athletics
o Collective conversational tutoring
o To be instructed by famous philosophers and teachers
o How to stand, how to be articulate
Athletic Complexes
Training body and mind
Social hang-outs
For the body and intellect
Wealth and leisure (Liberal Arts)
Education in the Hellenistic Era
After the death of Alexander the Great
Set curriculum, no one except students and teachers are allowed in
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Gymnasiarchos
o Have to be atleast 40 years of age, because of that time you can control their urges
o Paidonomos
Assisted Gymnas atleast 40 years old
Selection of staff and settling of disputes
o Didaskolos (teachers)
Grammar teachers, paidotribai (physical trainers), kitharistes (kithara player), psaltes (kithara
singer), infantry
Only paides got grammar training
Elected and their pay differs in that order
Military training only given to older students
o Paidagogos (nanny, or males salve who would escort)
o Choregos, paid for paides performances had to be over 40
Evidence of people not aloud in
o Slaves, freedman, cripples, homosexuals, drunks or madmen
o Punishable by death
Boys paides (two categories) and ephebes
o Epheboi two year training men into become citizens
o Sophronistes of the epheboi, was the master seargent of the epheboi troop, kosmetes was the over
o End of first year they were issued and shield, spear, chlamys cloak, petasos hat, and did border patrol
They were praised for their philotimia (love of honour)
New attitude toward education
o Apparently everyone got the same education, and was just about memorization
o Rich kids just got more, not better
o Parents want product and want certain result
o They didn’t want adults around the kids, no sexual urges etc
Female education
o If budget is tight girls will be the first to drop out
Homosexuality
Obviously an existence of homosexuality, of older men giving their love to younger men
o Evident in Platos Lysis
o Kalos (beauty), kalokagathai (quality of a spiritual goddess)
Male bonding for war,
Homosexuality was allowed on the emotional bonds, but not as a erotic perveted statute
Social benefit from homosexuality was property ownership, homosexuality allowed sexual impulses without
bastard children
o Because men did not marry until their 4os after military duty
Hellenistic Sport
Hellenic (Greek), Hellenistic (Greekish)
Hellenistic Era was beginning of rise of passive spectators and spectacular performers
o Has a very clear artificial beginning, death of Alexander the Great
Alexander (356-323)
o Hellenization, The Successors
The spread of Greek Athletics throughout this world because of culture assimilation
o Macedonians did not concur Greece but absorbed them
They formed a union and attacked the Persian Empire
And conquered Persia
Within 8-9 years
o All of the divided regions after his death all spoke Greek
Was the official language
o Egypt were ruled by Cleopatras and ________ who were Greeks, but treated in other customs
Question is how Hellenized were some of this colonies?
o Varies
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Document Summary

All the women from lesbos were lesbians. The gymnasion was comprised of the: palaestra, gymnasion, bath house. When someone is talking about a gymnasion, it probably means the whole thing: these are separate from the stadion. Vitruvius, roman architect, 1st c. ad: wrote a kind of manual for all these buildings. Peristyle- surrounded by collondes: open courtyard w/ porticoes colonnades , the central part has no roof, the open court yard, was used for the pale, basically skamma was here. Sloping roof coming off the main building, and would be rested on the peristyle, which are the columns: they were made so they faced the north in a certain way. Exedrae- specific rooms, the larger rooms that don"t have doors that are semi-open with pillars: they were there specifically so people could sit and receive lectures. Later this whole building becomes a school house, for philosophers etc: the main one on the north was always supposed to have benches.

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