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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
David Lamari

Athletic Architecture  Purple ball of love from Eros? o showing youth?  All the women from Lesbos were lesbians Typical Athletic Complex  The Gymnasion was comprised of the o Palaestra o Gymnasion o Bath House  When someone is talking about a gymnasion, it probably means the whole thing o These are separate from the stadion  Vitruvius, Roman Architect, 1 C. AD o Wrote a kind of manual for all these buildings Palaistra  Peristyle- surrounded by collondes o Open courtyard w/ Porticoes “colonnades” o The central part has no roof, the open court yard o Was used for the Pale, basically skamma was here  Sloping roof coming off the main building, and would be rested on the Peristyle, which are the columns o They were made so they faced the north in a certain way  Exedrae- specific rooms, the larger rooms that don’t have doors that are semi-open with pillars o They were there specifically so people could sit and receive lectures  Later this whole building becomes a school house, for philosophers etc. o The main one on the north was always supposed to have benches  The ephebeion- ephebes, young men training to become citizens would be here o To the right of the ephebeion  Korykeion- A room for the heavy bag  Loutron- A room for bathing, not the hot bath but just water like a sink  The hot bath was a Roman invention  Konisterion- A room with dust o To the left…..  Elaiothesion- room for storing oil  Funds called aleimmata (anointing oils) were probably administered here o Others:  Apodyterion- undressing room  Sphairisterion- ball room Bathing and Bathhouse  Olympia didn’t have one, but a separate place where one could bath o Some had pouting water, some had basin, some were like a pool  Roman’s took bathing more seriously, and had many more baths compared to those of the reeks  Thus they also had toilets  The Palaistra at Delphi had no large central courtyard, but put great emphasis on baths, unlike Olympia o Lack of water at Olympia th th o Shower heads in vase paintings 6 and 5 century Gymnasion  Textbook isn’t at best here  Has three walls o First wall shared with the Palaistra o Then there are two walls of perpendicular to that wall, sort of like a U-shape  Coming off of these wall are to roofs and the series of pillars found in the palaestrate  No 4 wall cause of discus and javelin Dromos (Practice-Track)  Underneath those porches/roof, people are practicing sprinting and such is called the dromos  Had two parts o Xystos: covered track  Official Olympic victor list was kept here  The Xystos on the other side of the Olympian was washed away by Kladeos river  Olympian xystos also opposed Vitrvius ideals by having a double colonnade (double xystos) o Paradromis- open track beside it, probably on the inside of the gymnasion  The paradromis at Delos was slightly sloped lower than the xystos to accommodate spectators. Why replicate these gymnasion when the original ones are there?  They were out of the way for some towns  Having a practice gymnasion was a good mark for the state  City states probably used these gymnasion for both competition and practice, where as festival centers were most likely to have separate ones (stadium vs gymnasion) o Also signified a victory more Decoration Athletic Complex  Were pretty outside of town, was also a place for gathering, water source nearby etc. Herms  Images of the god Hermes, whos penis was erect, and was supposed to be good luck, you found them everywhere o Many had the heads of the gymnasiarchoi Athens 3 Public Gymnasia:  Plato’s Akademy, Aristotle’s Lyceum, Cynosarges o First two were built by tyrant  Akademy had many Palastrae, was probably like a university campus  All outside the city walls, and by rivers  State-run w/ Private money  Palastrae 200x 200 feet  Private places tend to just be Palastrae Education Education in the Classical Era  not compulsory  Boys 7-14 o Private tutoring o Discipline & memorization o Arete & kalokagathia(looking good and being good) o Don’t bother teaching a kid before 7  Boys 14+ o 3-4 yrs at the athletic complex o Plato (Academy); Aristotle (Lyceum) o Philosophy, Rhetoric, Athletics o Collective conversational tutoring o To be instructed by famous philosophers and teachers o How to stand, how to be articulate Athletic Complexes  Training body and mind  Social hang-outs  For the body and intellect  Wealth and leisure (Liberal Arts) Education in the Hellenistic Era  After the death of Alexander the Great  Set curriculum, no one except students and teachers are allowed in  Gymnasiarchos o Have to be atleast 40 years of age, because of that time you can control their urges o Paidonomos  Assisted Gymnas… atleast 40 years old  Selection of staff and settling of disputes o Didaskolos (teachers)  Grammar teachers, paidotribai (physical trainers), kitharistes (kithara player), psaltes (kithara singer), infantry  Only paides got grammar training  Elected and their pay differs in that order  Military training only given to older students o Paidagogos (nanny, or males salve who would escort) o Choregos, paid for paides performances had to be over 40  Evidence of people not aloud in o Slaves, freedman, cripples, homosexuals, drunks or madmen o Punishable by death  Boys paides (two categories) and ephebes o Epheboi two year training men into become citizens o Sophronistes of the epheboi, was the master seargent of the epheboi troop, kosmetes was the over o End of first year they were issued and shield, spear, chlamys cloak, petasos hat, and did border patrol  They were praised for their philotimia (love of honour)  New attitude toward education o Apparently everyone got the same education, and was just about memorization o Rich kids just got more, not better o Parents want product and want certain result o They didn’t want adults around the kids, no sexual urges etc  Female education o If budget is tight girls will be the first to drop out Homosexuality  Obviously an existence of homosexuality, of older men giving their love to younger men o Evident in Plato’s Lysis o Kalos (beauty), kalokagathai (quality of a spiritual goddess)  Male bonding for war,  Homosexuality was allowed on the emotional bonds, but not as a erotic perveted statute  Social benefit from homosexuality was property ownership, homosexuality allowed sexual impulses without bastard children o Because men did not marry until their 4o’s after military duty Hellenistic Sport  Hellenic (Greek), Hellenistic (Greekish)  Hellenistic Era was beginning of rise of passive spectators and spectacular performers o Has a very clear artificial beginning, death of Alexander the Great  Alexander (356-323) o Hellenization, The Successors  The spread of Greek Athletics throughout this world because of culture assimilation o Macedonians did not concur Greece but absorbed them  They formed a union and attacked the Persian Empire  And conquered Persia  Within 8-9 years o All of the divided regions after his death all spoke Greek  Was the official language’ o Egypt were ruled by Cleopatras and ________ who were Greeks, but treated in other customs  Question is how Hellenized were some of this colonies? o Varies o You find the upper classed of these native people practicing athletics  Athletics Under Alexander o His attitude towards Athletics is hard to put a finger on  His father competed in a horse race  Alexander the 1 was asked to compete on a footrace and he won  When he was asked if he wanted to compete “only compete if I compete against Kings”  He saw statues at a Polis of people who had won, and people were trying to impress him  And he said “what did these athletes do when Persia invaded” o The army  All of the tournaments used to be open, (within a group)  But instead now a closed invitational competition, only for the soldiers?  If he was holding a competition it would not have a musical competition when the Pythian Games were being held?  These performers were shuttling back and forth….?  He’s importing athletes to remain lethal? o Athletic Spectacle  Alexanders best friend and lover died, he had a massive funeral games o Athletic Guilds  A collection of people who lobbied, because the travel time was immense because of larger territory  Asking for benefits and organizing themselves  Job was to be an athlete, since being an athlete was entertaining troops  Dioxippos committed suicide after he fell out of favour of Alexander  Hellenization o As Alexander integrated these games in new regions, most natives were enthusiastic  Rushed to build gymnasion and stadiums, and requested assistance from their rulers o People want theirs kids to be immersed in this new ruling culture, hence the schools and curriculum and shit  Isostephanitic Games o a way to please the people and good public relations o Soteria of Greece, Nikephoria of Pergamon, Sebesteia of Judaea, Isolympic Games of Naples  new games are popping up and they are very well funded  a special class of these new games coming up  has the Status of the Stephanitic Games  same rules, same set up same everything  If you wanted to set one up, you would write to Greek Communities and ask for their recognition/approval  Nikephoria was a games that wasn’t a King that was Greek or Macedonian  Stadium At Kaisareia Sebasteia o Ceaser Most Reverend o Games of Judea  Augustus himself has the naples games but it included cashprizes and sacrifices to the empire so only some parts of IsoOlympic  228BC Roman participation in Isthmian Games after contact with Corinth o No evidence of Etruscans or Romans had any contact with the Romans in the 6-4 century BC  Nero and his 10 horse team, 1808 victories, announcing his own victories, destruction of previous statues  Domitian who established Capitolian Games in AD 86 to incorporate Greek Games o Made the permanent Campus Martius Piazza Navona  Creation of titles to demonstrate superiority, Successor of Herakles, Triastes for running ones, Peridonikes, circuit winner, first of mankind to do so, Archubius writes  Maccabean Revolt o Some went to the Athletics enthusiastic, but other Jews thought it offensive o Maccabea’s were a family who revolted  There was a priest who enrolled Jews into the Greek System etc  Doing Athletic etc, was also done on the Sabbath  The fate of Hellenic Sport o Greek Athletics under the Roman Rule  What’s happening in Greece as Romans become for influential, you saw people donate a portion of their winnings to their own respective gods  Some guy did something his prize  A lot more buildings being paid for by individuals within the Hellenistic Era o The romans, weren’t sure what to make of Athletics  Fond of their art and poetry but not comfortable with Athletics and its obsession, and the nudity o Athletics were not prevalent, and there were several attempts from leaders to bring them back in Professional and Amateurs  Perks for Athletes o For some people that’s what defines profession o To be an amateur means you’re devoid from any benefits  “if their cheering for you, you’re not doing it right”  They’re amateurs, they’re not fully trained  Detractors o Athletes would have detractors who believed they had not won the right to recognition and rewards that previous generations had bestowed on them. o In this period, Greek cultures leaves this uncritical and have harder critics  Now people criticize what athletes do both on and off the sport o Galen talks about how athletes have no glory, broke, broken in body, stupid, etc  In the grand scheme thing of things, why is sucha good thing to be the fastest human being  He is mostly talking about athletics that have one motion or stress one muscle, likely  Herokles letters describes a lot of illegal practices for the sake of money o Athletics dieing as a monetary motive  A boy won at Pale at Isthmia promising to pay $66 000 to his opponent  Gymnastia care nothing about the reputation of athletes  Professional and Amateurs o Both words come from Latin, idiots referring to a private person as opposed to a public official  Amator someone who does something out of love  Professio a public declaration of acknowledgement  Vs proficio to make progress or to gain advantage o Were ancient reek Athletes professionals?  We cant find any medium within the Greek World  In some sense all Greek Athletes were professional because they do seem to get some benefit  On the other hand, we look at the scope of the prizes and professional o In the textbook Miller also doesn’t really answer the question o Some may say, if the primary source of income is from that professions.  Basically the textbooks makes clear distinction that, once the Hellenistic period started and these Athletes were making big trips for these Isostephanitic games, th  Now to attract the athletes you have to have larger prizes, then the stakes, and than the energy, than a superclass of athletes o Eiselastic  An adjective comin
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