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Classics Midterm 2 Textbook Notes.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
David Lamari

Classics Midterm 2 Notes  Reconstruction of the 120 Olympiad, took place in 300 B.C on August 9 th  Pausanias mentions that Elis had an old gymnasion where athletes went through customary training before they repair to Olympia o Included a racetrack, and a practice track for runners and pentathletes o Also included a plethrion (the 100-footer) where the judges match the wrestlers by age and ability  There was another smaller gymnasion attached to the older one (named Square because of its shape) o Athletes would practice wrestling and boxing  Another gymnasion is reserved for the young men of the city, also includes the council house in this gymnasion  A road from the second gymnasion, leads to baths and another led to the judges building  The judges move into the Hellanodikaion 10 months before the games begin o Guardians of the law would then train the judges for the games during the 10 month period  The council consisted of a 50 member panel who exercised some sort of supervision over the games  The judges would split into subcommittees for various events – horse races, footraces, boxing, wrestling and the pankration  A month before the games began a sacred truce was announced which allowed participants, both athletes and spectators, to travel in safety to the games o Heralds would announce these, the people who did this were known as theoroi o The theorodokoi facilitated the task of the heralds when they arrived in their cities  After the sacred truce month was over, athletes would gather at Elis and undergo a month of training overlooked by the judges  If an athlete was late and could not prove he was delayed by illness, pirates or shipwreck, would receive a fine (if not paid, they would be flogged)  At the beginning of the Olympics, athletes would have to take an oath that they had adhered strictly to their training for the past 10 months  The festival site was open all year, every year for tourists and visitors to come o An inscription from the 189 Olympiad lists a number of on-call officials who could help visitors make a sacrifice to Zeus  On-call sacrificing priest—aided by a flutist, a libation pourer, three man group of libation dancers, a woodman and a butcher-cook  5 bailiffs to keep order  Official guide to satisfy visitors curiosity  These officials were paid in a portion of the sacrificial animal, animal skin and firewood  Craftsman prepare the stadium and many other buildings for the Olympiad o The surface of the track was dug up, sprinkled with water and then rollers compacted the surface to create a smooth surface o The skammas have never been discovered and their locations are unknown, but they would have been dug during the competitions in the stadium o Then they would install the starting mechanisms for the races (in the year 300 BC, would have been hypslex II) o On August 6 , the hippodrome was cleared, cleaned, equipped and ready for action  Before the athletes leave to Olympia, the judges say: “if you have worked to be worthy of going to Olympia, if you have done nothing indolent or ignoble, then take heart and march on; but those who have not so trained ma leave and go where they like”  After those words had been said, the march to Olympia would commence (it is estimated that there were 10 judges, 50 council people, 200 athletes, 100 equestrian units, and many family members, entourages, friends etc.)  August 6 is spent on the road, August 7 they would have almost reached Olympia by morning but stop at a spring called Pieria where the judges undergo a ritual purification (sprinkled with the blood of pig then washed in the spring water)  Poets, painters and sculptors attended the games to display their works  The spectators had to live in bad conditions during these games (heat was exhausting, rain would soak them, very loud and noisy, and no space) but they did it because they enjoyed the games so much  Once arrived on August 7 , the judges would take the athletes to the council house to determine the athletes age and administer the oath o Age was determined based on athletes, their fathers, brothers and trainers and whether they were fully developed to be put in the Andres category (men)  Some athletes would be very nervous because they would march with the paides (boys) and could be faced with being put in the category of men  The age category for horses would also be made at this time o Judges could not accept bribes in making their decisions  Horses were excited by a bronze statute of a horse  The statue of Zeus on the council house holds a thunderbolt in each hand o They would take the Oath of Zeus next to this statue  The first competitions then begin but are not for the athletes (for the trumpeter and herald), which would determine the announcer and the trumpet player th  The remainder of August 7 was taken up with sightseeing, watching the crowd and making sacrifices  At dawn on August 8 , a procession sets out from the Prytaneion where the sacred flame burns o The priests of Zeus and judges lead the procession o The marchers visit 63 altars to various gods located within the Altis o Stopped at the Altar of Zeus Apomyios (Fly averter) to keep flies away from food  After the procession the scene shifts to the hippodrome o Trumpeter summons the crowd, and the competitors and their horses pass in review o The herald announces the competitors name and his fathers name and his native city o The first race is the tethrippon (4-horse chariot)  Theochristos of Cyrene won in 300 BC o Next comes the horseback race, followed by the 2-horse chariot  Next was the pentathlon, when someone won his name would be announced and he would receive a ribbon and a palm branch o The tradition of phyllobolia is when the crowd throws ribbons at the winner on his victory lap o Akousilaos and Damagetos both one a victory in boxing and pankration, and did a joint victory lap, ran into the crowd and picked up their father and paraded him around the track, receiving a large amount of flowers  The winners of the days event would go back to their tents and have victory parties while the losers would be alone and athletes still to compete would be hoping they’d have their own victory parties very soon th  The night of August 8-9 marked the full moon – the great sacrifice at the altar of Zeus  On August 9 , there would be a great procession through the Altis led by priests and judges, followed by athletes and official ambassadors of various city-states o 100 oxen were brought for sacrifice to Zeus, the thighs were burned and the rest of the meat was cooked and distributed to the crowd o It is theorized that the rest of August 9 was spent recovering from the big feast th  On August 10 individual events in the stadium are held o The first is the Dolichos o Followed by the stadion race (the winner of this event would have the Olympiad named after him) – Pythagoras of Magnesia o Followed by the diaulos (winner=Nikandros) o Followed by wrestling (winner= Keras of Argos) o Followed by boxing (winner= Archippos of Mytilene) o Followed by the pankration (winner= Nikon)  Last day of the festival is August 11 th o In front of the temple of Zeus, the final prize of victory is awarded to each winner (crown of olive leaves) o Ends with a victory dinner The Money Games at Epidauros, Athens, Larissa, and Sparta  These games differed from the crown games because the prizes was money or something that could be converted into cash  Known as chrematitic, which comes from the word chremata (money)  The Asklepeia o Located in the small city state of Epidauros o Sanctuary of Asklepios th  Constructed during the 4 century BC  Preserved theater southeast of the sanctuary o On the opposite side of the sanctuary was the Temple of Asklepios  Place where the sick went to spend the night to be cured (sometimes by sacred snakes licking wounds)  Women were allowed to enter the temple to be cured, as well as men o Most important competitions were the gymnikos agon and mousikos agon  No evidence of a hippikos agon was part of the Asklepeian games  We hear specifically about the stadion race, pankration and pentathlon o Hypslex were the starting mechanisms o Athletes entered the stadium through a vaulted tunnel, that ran from the locker room  The Panathenaia o Held to honour the city-states patron goddess o A section of Aristotle’s Constitution of the Athenians is a primary written source about these games o A large fragment of marble stele lists the individual competitions together with the prizes awarded to each in the 4 century BC o Games were held annually and were only open to citizens of Athens, but after 566/5 they were augmented to every four years and open to all Greeks  These new quadrennial games were known as the Greater Panathenaia  Included the gymnikos agon, hippikos agon and mousikos agon  The prizes in the mousikos agon were not only for first place but also for 2 -5 place  The first place prize for kithara singers was a gold crown and 500 drachmas (equal to around $150,000 today)  The stadion was the only footrace, but evidence of a pentathlon, pale, pyx and pankration has been found for all three age categories  Each victor received a number of amphora’s filled with oil  Ex. The winner in the boy’s stadion race received 50 amphora’s o Amphora’s were decorated with pictures of Athena (usually with a spear in her hand) o There would have been about 1,944L of olive oil in the amphora which can be valued at around $10,000 today  The hippikos agon only had 2 events—the 2 horse chariot race for full grown horses, and for foals—inscribed on the marble stele  But it is known that a full program of equestrian events took place due to the pictures on amphora’s  Winner of the four horse chariot race received the most loot out of any event o According to Aristotle, a group of 10 athlothetai (prize producers) were selected by lot and over the four years organized the games, making vases, gathering oil, and presenting the prizes  Out of recognition, these 10 people were fed in the prytaneion for a month before the games began  The date on amphora’s refers to when the oil was gathered and placed in them (not to the year of the game) o The theater of Dionysus is where the mousikos agon was held o The gymnikos agon was held in the Archaic north of the Akropolis  In 330, Akropolis provided a new stadium between a ravine and two hills  In 140 and 144 A.D, Athenian Herodes Atticus sheathed the stadium in marble (including the seats)  Marble disappeared in the medieval times, and then reconstructed to celebrate the first modern Olympics (this makes it impossible to recover the structure in 330BC)  However, it is clear that a tunnel existed and a locker room o The events in the prior annual festival, had significantly smaller prizes than the Greater festival  The annual festival also had a military slant  Ex. Akon thrower from horseback—winner determined by accuracy of hitting a post o There was no ankyle attached to the javelin, and they wore a hat and clock  Ex. Pyrrhiche dancers o Plato described this as “movement that evade blows and missiles by dodging, yielding, leaping and crouching…” o Men wearing helmets and or shields performing coordinated movements or acrobatics  Ex. Euandria o Do not know exactly what the competition was but we assume it was some sort of pageant so show off strength and physical fitness o Participated in tribes, the tribe who won would receive a prize and it would be shared by everyone in that tribe  Lampadephoros (torch bearer)  Ten teams consisting of 40 members raced in a relay from the Akademy to the Akropolis  Each person must have ran about 60m  Crucial element was that the torch must be kept burning, you were disqualified if the torch went out  An individual person won this race, but we are confused as to why o Did the anchor win the prize? Were there two races—one for individuals and one for teams?  The runners would run to light Athena’s altar first  This is the reason we still carry the Olympic flame  The flame symbolizes life  Hoplomachia (armed combat or fencing) is a possible event in the festival  Apobates  Participants consisted of chariot teams of 4 horses drive by a charioteer and accompanied by an armed warrior  Each of the ten tribes entered as 1 team  Began in Kerameikos and ended in Eleusinion because the roads began to be too steep for chariots to be on  The total length of the course was 700m  The warrior dismounted at certain places and ran alongside the chariot, and at the end the warrior would dismount one last time and run to the line (the steepest part of the course)  Anthippasia  Took place in the hippodrome  Row of 4 prancing horses awaits the signal to charge  There were two sides, consisting of 5 tribal contingents  Objection was to charge through the other’s lines three times  Played by fresh-faced youths to display their newly developed skills  The final event was a boat race (trireme)  We don’t know how long, or what kind of boat was used  Estimates of the oar men are 170-198  Each team had a captain, a boatswain who gave a beat to the oarsmen  200 free meals were awarded to the winner  Was a military ship  The Elutheria Games o Held in Larissa Thessaly o In honor of Zeus o Only citizens of Larissa participated o An inscription lists the victors of events o Did not have the common horse races, however it did have a torch race on horseback o Taurotheria (bull hunt)  Appears on coins of Larissa  A rider would chase a bull in an enclosure until it became tired, the rider would guide his horse alongside the bull, then the rider would jump from his horse onto the neck of the bull and use his weight to force the bulls head down until the knees buckled and the bull rolled over with its horns stuck in the ground o Had competitions for herald and trumpeters o Standard competitions in the gymnikos agon  The Karneia o In Sparta  City-state known for its educational system o The land the Spartan owned was tilled by indigenous people, therefore the Spartan created a strong military o Various events in the mousikos and hippikos agon o Only participated in footraces in the gymnikos agon  Enjoyed the longer races, created one called penta dolichos  This was 5 times the length of the original Dolichos o The Hoplitodromos is attested only once, and no Spartan ever won it at Olympia o Also participated in the pentathlon and were very successful at it o Philostratos said that Spartans created boxing because they wanted to thicken the skull by not wearing helmets, but then later quit since boxing meant one opponent would have to admit defeat which would make the Spartans look cowardly if they lost o Sphaireis (ball players)—similar to modern rugby, however there was no ball  Took place on an island and the objective was to push to opposing tribe off the island o Stealing cheese  Youths of Sparta would steal cheese from the altar while others whipped them  Many youths died because of this since they would not admit defeat  If they died, a statue would be made in their honour  Bomonikes is the term for “altar winner” Women and Athletics  A wife was seen as someone who tended to the house doing domestic activities  Hetaira (companion) o Generally more sophisticated and cultured than a house wife o They were not considered fit for the home  Women were not seen in vase paintings as participating in athletics o Seen next to a beauty shop o Seen swimming at the beach  It was a law that any woman who attended the festival at Olympia on the days it was forbidden to women, would be thrown off a cliff o Only woman that has ever been caught was Kallipateira who went to the Olympics disguised as a trainer for her son  She was caught but unpunished because of all the Olympic victors in her family  However, they made a new law that required all trainers to be in the nude at athletic festivals after that  Atalanta o Was another exception and was able to compete o Was victorious many times o Depicted on vases as wearing a loin cloth, then as time goes on a cap and bra are added o Many men were interested in marrying her, but she was not interested in marry anyone, however it was a proper place for a woman to be in so she said she would marry the man who beat her in a footrace and anyone who couldn’t beat her she would kill  Many men attempted and failed  Hippomanes was up for the challenge and he prayed to Aphrodite (goddess of love) for assistance, and she gave him three golden apples  Whenever Atalanta was beating him, he would drop an apple and it would distract her, eventually he won the footrace and Atalanta  Kyniska o First woman to win the tethrippon (although she did not parti
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