Classics Midterm Study Sheet (first Midterm)

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Western University
Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

Classics Midterm Study Sheet  First modern Olympics o April 6-15 1896 o Athens Greece o 14 nations + 8 events o Founded by Pierre de Coubertin Modern Olympic Ideology o Amateurism – (look up definition) o “sacred Truce” of games promotes peace and international relations  Olympic creed – not to win but to take part Greek Definitions (Ancient Vs. Modern athletics)  Athletics – “prize” be first in anything  Crown Games – “in it for the money” didn’t have to be #1 as you are getting paid  Competition – “agony” One must endure some sort of agony or pain when they compete About Greek sports… - Training for war (Athletes are soldiers as well) - Fundamentally religious Greek Religion: Polytheistic Anthropomorphism • Polythemism: Many gods • Anthropomorphism = In the shape of humans Lecture 2 Hesiod: Background • Heseiod Author of Theogony = (Birth of the Gods) – origins of the cosmos; how Zeus became king of the gods. – Gods can be born and are subject to things human are – Gods can be born by humans but are immortal – Zeus is king of gods Intergenerational Cosmic Strife [Eris] – Background of theogany • Ouranos + Gaia (parents) – Give birth to three different types of people • Titans; Cyclopes, Hundred Handers (Briareos, Cottos, and Gyges) Titans Kronos (+Rhea), Iapetus (+ Clymene) Olympians Non-Olympians; Non-Titans Hades Menoitios Poseidon Atlas Zeus Prometheus Hestia, Demeter, Hera Epimetheus Children of Iapetus- Challengers to Zeus (people who have gone against zeus’s will) Menoitios-Outrageous (hybrstic) Menoitios, broad browed Zeus blasted into Erebos Atlas- Crimped hard, holds up the wide sky at earth’s limits….Standing with indefatigable head and hands, for this is the part wise Zeus assigned him - Atlas is punished by zeus by forcing him to hold upo the entire world - He is the symbol of force and strength Prometheus- And he bound Prometheus with ineluctable fetters, painful bonds, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set a long-winged eagle on him that kept gnawing at his undying liver, but when the long winged bird ate the whole day through, would all grow back by night. - Known for his deception Notes: - Prometheus and Atlas are known as the two aspects of sports, force and deception - Bie = force and metis = deception and Zeus has both Zeus’ Winning Team in the Titanomachy And Styx, Ocean’s daughter, made love with Pallas and bore Envy (Zelos) in her house and beautiful Victory (Nikê) and Strength (Kratos) and Force (Biê)- notable children she bore, and they have no house apart from Zeus, no dwelling or path except where the god leads them, and they dwell forever with deep-thundering Zeus. Children of Styx Zelos = Envy (jealousy) Nikê = Victory Kratos= Strength Biê = Force/Power Notes: - envy accompanies victory, which leads to victory through strength and force/power … For this was how Styx, Ocean’s daughter, made her decision on that fateful day when the lord of lighting summoned the gods to the slopes of Olympos, and told them whoever fought along with him against the Titans he would not deprive of any rights and honors (timê) among the deathless gods. Timê = social value (what others think about you) • Nike – Goddess of Victory • Performed sacrifices to nike after achieving victory • Victory is random and has no cause and effect • Styx- An Immortal Death “If ever a god who lives on snowcapped Olympos pours a libation of this (water of Styx) and breaks his oath, he lies a full year without any breath, not a taste of ambrosia, not a sip of nectar comes to his lips, but he lies breathless and speechless on a blanketed bed, an evil coma upon him. But when the long year brings this disease to an end, another more difficult trial is in store, Nine years of exile from the everlasting gods, no converse in council or at their feasts for nine full years. In the tenth year finally he rejoins the Immortals in their homes on Olympos. Upon this the gods swear, the primordial, imperishable water of Styx.” Notes: - If a god goes back on his word he is put into a coma, (a god’s death is the equivalent of not being able to move) and then is exiled from the gods for nine years Titanomachy – Battle of Biê Hundred Handers: Hyper-anthropomorphism - Saw the hundred handers as a threat to his kingdom so ournos banished tem to the underworld - Zeus brings them back and offers them gifts Hundred Handers to Zeus: Our minds are bent therefore, and our wills fixed on preserving your power through the horror of war.” War- What is it good for? – Timê (social value or symbolic capital) “So the blessed gods had done a hard piece of work, settled by force (biê) the question of rights with the Titans. Then at Gaia’s suggestion they pressed broad-browed Zeus, the Olympian, to be their king and rule the Immortals. And so Zeus dealt out their privileges and rights (timê).” Notes: - Zeus is elected to be king, o Does not take power but is given power o Zeus shares the time instead of holding onto it Why Anthropomorphism? - Theomorphisism: people are in fact shaped like gods - Greeks always reminded themselves of their mortality o Gods were their imagination of if mortality did not exist o Gods did not have morals as they could not die o Gods are a way of seeing what is not humanly possible but divinely possible Lecture 3 - Athletics was a worship for the gods - Death is a motivator for the practice of athletics Mind-Body Dualism: Modern Presupposition, with Ancient Beginnings Plato: Fear of Death; (theory of rebirth) “ they fear that when she *the soul/psuchê+ has left the body her place may be nowhere, and that on the very day of death she may perish and come to an end immediately on her release from the body...dispersing and vanishing away into nothingness in her flight.” Phaedo 70a Notes: - Mind is part of the body (mind-body dualism) - Mind sub consciousness should continue after body falls apart - Body is opposed to mind - You are a sum of your parts (your muscles) - Body Fetishization: focusing on body parts and improving certain areas despite their function Earlier Views: The Body as Whole Person Homer Iliad 23. 99-104 And with his own arms Achilles reached for Patroclus, but could not take him, and the spirit (psuchê) went underground, like vapour, with a thin cry, and Achilleus was amazed, staring: “Oh wonder! Even in the house of Hades there is left something, a spirit and an image , (psuchê and eidôlon) but there is no mind in it.” Notes: - Mind body dualism did not exist in earlier views - Body itself is the person Death and the Body Mortals: Ephemeral Ones “Human generations are like leaves in their seasons. The wind blows them to the ground, but the tree sprouts new ones when spring comes again. Men too. Their generations come and go.” Glaukos to Diomedes Iliad. 6.146ff - Homeric poetry is the earliest of greek poetries (Homer) o Fundamentally influential throughout greek history - Hubris: overstepping your boundaries o Example of guy going after goddess - Mortal food: bread, wine o Function of vegetative cycle o Humans are mortal because they eat the food of the earth - Immortal food: Nectar, and ambrosia o Ichor: immortal blood - Gods are athanatoi- deathless Votives: Representing Divine Bodies • All statues, known as agalmata, “a delight” for the gods. Notes: - Gift for the gods - If you give to the god then the god will give back to you (if I give then I get) Representing the (clothed) Female Body: Nikandrê Kore 650-625 BCE Women representations were always clothed - Inverse of modern culture as everyone was obsessed with the male body Kouros: Figuring the Male Body, Mortal and Immortal Notes: - Apollo kouros is different as he has his hand out compared to the kroisos kouros or the new York kouros o Waiting for you to give something o Made of bronze as opposed to marble - Body type was meant to represent a person who has gone through war training Beyond the Kouros: Naturalism or Hyper-Realism? Riace Bronzes: Made ca. 460-450 BCE 1. Contraposto stance • One hip down, one hip up 2. Extreme anatomical detail (way more defined than other statues) -“iliac furrow” or “Sex Lines” - Body is becoming more and more fetishized (more and more unrealistic) A cult of beauty in Ancient Greece • Male Beauty Contests: Euandria (Good Manliness): Contest testing size, strength, And beauty. Euexia (similar to Euandria): Bodybuilding contest, Usually taking place at Gymnasion (civic gym), Judged by symmetry, definition, bearing, and “fit and healthy appearance” Notes: - Males had to go to the gym - Physical symmetry was related to moral symmetry o You’re a good person based on your appearance o If you looked bad, then you were a bad person Impossible Bodies Body Fascism: The imposition of norms for acceptable or successful bodies brought about by a great commercial exposure to paragons of ideal proportions. - Nigel Spivey - Actions can be replicated but appearance can’t be - Real bodies are less attractive than sculptures o Sculptures are more than human bodies could ever be Standards of Impossibility Polycleitus - Greek Sculptor of 5 Century BC • Famous for idealizing sculpture Pliny, Natural History, 34.55: “He also made a statue which artists call the “Canon” and from which they derive the basic forms of their art, as if some kind of law.” Notes: - Ideal of human body that Pliny made become the norm and expectation for human body Desire and the Male Athletic Body - Athletics becomes a deeply religious practice in a way that is not the same as modern consumerism and the body. - Difference between ancient and modern is divinity o Modern body has a commercial basis o Ancient body had a religious basis Lecture 4 - Homeric Poetry: originated in the iron ages (1200 – 800 BCE) o No actual author named homer – home is the mythical author of the illiad and the odyssey (said to be a blind poet) o Not written down by a single person  Tradition of stories carried on by multiple people - Story of anger and honour Iliad Synopsis 1. Begins with a conflict, 2. Apollo gets angry and sends a plague 3. Agamemnon wants trophy slave in order to give daughter back 4. Agamemnon takes achilles wife and gets angry which leads achilles to pray for death of greeks (acheaans) 5. Patrochus goes to war dressed as Achilles 6. Hector kills patroclus 7. Achilles gets angry 8. Achilles rejoins war 9. Achilles buries patroclus (funeral games) 11. Achilles tries to mutilate body of hector but gods don’t allow it (returns it to Priam) - Athletics began as a commemoration of the dead - Purpose of war = Timê  What gods are fighting over (Zeus wins in the end and becomes the god of time) - Patroclus = Achilles second self - Achilles was selfish as he cares more about himself than patroclus by wanting him to not have a special burial until he, Achilles, dies too Funeral Games for Patroclus - Earliest representation of athletics - Every place wins a prize (Achilles eliminated the zero-sum gain) - Achilles is known as the swift-footed achilles (known for athletic ability) - Chariot race prizes: 1. women and 22 gallon tripod (tripods were important as metal is precious) 2. Mare pregnant with a mule 3. Beautiful cauldron 4. 2 bars of gold 5. 2 handled bowl unfired - Skill is superior to force (metis beats bie) - Menelaos: “Antilochos, although I was angry I will now give way to you, since you were not flightly or lightheaded before now. Your youth got the better of your brain. You will not play tricks on your betters another time. Another man might not have won me over, but you have suffered much and worked hard for my sake, as have your noble father and your brother. Therefore I shall be swayed by your supplication, and I will even give you the mare, although she is mine, so that all may see and know that my heart is never arrogant and stubborn.” - Antilochus uses metis and gives his mare to Menelaos. Menelaos uses reciprocity and gives it back - Reciprocity is completed through 3 obligations: 1. Act of giving 2. Obligation to receive 3. Obligation to reciprocate o Same obligations used when praying to the gods Excert from Homer’s Iliad (Lombardo) Agamemnon- “I’ll give her back, if that’s what’s best. I don’t want to see the army destroyed like this. But I want another prize (geras) ready for me right away. I’m not going to be the only Greek without a prize (agerastos), it wouldn’t be right. And you all see where mine is going.” - Agamemnon has to give back his war prize - Geras = prize, physical marker of status - Agamemnon has to have a prize to remain at the top (leader of the greeks) o Created a zero-sum gain (there is a win-lose situation) - Someone is going to lose their social status (Achilles gives his geras to Agamemnon Achilles Il.1.167 - It’s for you, dog face, for your precious pleasure- And Menelaus’ honor (timê)- that we came here, A fact you don’t have the decency even to mention! And now you are threatening to take away my prize (geras) That I sweated for and the Greeks gave me. I never get a prize equal to yours when the army captures one of the Trojan strongholds. - Agamemnon is an administrator, raking in the profits but not risking his neck on the battlefield o Creating social status through distributions of prizes (women) Second best of the Achaeans - Ajax was second best of the greeks (behind Achilles) - Wrestling match, both Odysseus (metis) and Ajax (bie) tied each other - Running, Odysseus prayed to Athena and she tripped Ajax allowing Odysseus to win - Eventually (when Achilles dies) Odysseus fights ajax for Achilles armour o Odysseus tricks ajax and wins - Athena then tricks ajax into thinking a flock of sheep are the greeks so he murders them and commits suicide out of embarrassment - KEY MESSAGE: Force is not enough Spear throwing with Agamemnon - Achilles just gives him the prize without a contest o Can be interpreted as kind o Can be interpreted as sarcasm saying that he doesn’t do anything anyways and gets good so he might as well take 1 st - A crisis in Competition: Striving to be the best (i.e. between Achilles and Agamemnon) creates the destruction of the community. o If you die, your status will be preserved based on your amount of time Lecture 5 – Odyssey and Athletics: Recognizing Power Odyssey Synopsis: 1) The Trojan War lasted 10 Years; 10 years after the Trojan War, Odysseus has still not returned home to Ithaka 2) Suitors pursue Odysseus’ wife, Penelope, in order to take control of Odysseus’ land and power. 3) Odysseus has been stuck on Calypso’s island for seven years. Athena intervenes and convinces Zeus to have Odysseus return home. 4) Odysseus gets ship-wrecked on the island of the Phaeacians, where he narrates his adventures including story of Cyclops (major reason he is detained from returning home), Lotus Eaters, Circe, Underworld, Cattle of the Sun, etc. o Xenia – if someone comes to knock on your door it is your duty to treat them as a friend; idea of reciprocity (creating a network of relationships) o Laodamas invites Oysseus to compete in athletic games (Odysseus says no but after mocking him, he gives in) o Odysseus wants Kleos (Fame) and Nostos (homecoming) • Achilles on the other hand could only have one and chose Kleos • Kleos (fame/Glory) = compensation for death 5) Phaeacians send Odysseus back to Ithaka, where he arrives disguised. - Disguises himself as a beggar in his own house - Challenged By Irus to a fight for the entertainment of the suitors (winner gets free food for life) o Problem 1: suitors would be stealing the food for Odysseus as they are in his house and it already was his food o Problem 2: suitors are using fighting for entertainment, not guest-host relations - Odysseus knocks out Irus in one punch and the suitors laugh at the violence - Odysseus warns one of the suitors: (Ephemeral man) Listen closely. Of all that breathes and crawls across the earth, Mother earth breeds nothing feebler than a man. So long as the gods grant him power, spring in his knees, he thinks he will never suffer affliction down the years. But then, when the happy gods bring on the long hard times, bear them he must, against his will, and steel his heart. Our lives, our mood and mind as we pass across the earth, turn as the days turn… As the father of men and gods makes each day dawn. I too seemed destined to be a man of fortune once And a wild wicked swath I cut, indulged my lust for violence, Staking all on my father and brothers. Look at me now. And so, I say, let no man ever be lawless all his life, Just take in peace what gifts the gods will send.” Odyssey 18 6) Odysseus slowly reveals himself to his family members, and eventually slaughters the suitors of Penelope. - Penelope tries to delay marriage to suitor and comes up with final contest: o Must be able to Odysseus’ bow and shoot through 12 axes will win her as a bride (as odysseus once did) o Women can either be an agent or Object when it comes to marriage  Agent: can make a choice (contest for her love)  Object: being treated as a prize o Telemachus (odysseus’s son tries to string it) but Odysseus prevents him and strings it himself  One of the greatest things a father could have is a son that is better than him, but Odysseus prevents this Odysseus questioning the aristocratic ideal: How you look is how you are as a moral person (ugly = bad person) Odysseus: “You’re no gentleman! It is so true that the Gods do not give total grace, a complete endowment of both beauty and wit to all men alike. There will be one man who is less than average in build, and the gods will so crown his words with a flower of beauty and all who hear him are moved….Another man will be as handsome as the Gods, yet will lack that strand of charm twined into his words. Take yourself for example: a masterpiece in body which not even a god could improve, but empty in the head.” - Odysseus had age and speed Antilochos: “Friends, you all know well the truth of what I say, that still the gods continue to favor the older men. Look here, Ajax is older than I, if only by a little, but Odysseus is out of another age and truly one of the ancients. But his old age is, as they say, a lusty one. I don’t think any Achaian could match his speed, except Achilles.” Iliad 23 Lecture 6 – Pindar (Poet of Victory) - Purpose of athletics = Athlon (physical prize), Time (social status) and kleos (Fame) - Athletic recognition (social status and fame) , is acquired only through the recognition of others (commemoration) - Modes of commemoration are: Physical (sculpture) and verbal (praise poety) Pindar’s Poetry - Choral lyric: performed by group which represented t
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