Passages for 2nd midterm

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Classical Studies
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Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

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Classics passages sheet nd - Nature of 30 day Training (2 Century AD inscription for Pancratist): “He performed exercises in view of the Hellanodikai according to the paternal customs of the contests with care and in a manner worthy of Olympic Zeus and training .” - -Philostratus, Life of Apollonius, Miller Arete #84. Hellanodikai to athletes: “If you have worked so as to be worthy of going to Olympia, if you have done nothing indolent nor ignoble, then take heart and march on; but those who have not so trained may leave and go whereever they like.”  (form of an oath to the gods) • -Lucian, Herodotus, 1-4 and 7-8 On Herdotus’ performance of the Histories at Olympia: “The time for the Olympic festival was approaching and Herodotus thought this was the opportunity for which he had been waiting. He kept an eye out at the festival until it was most crowded and the most prominent men assembled from everywhere. Then he went into the rear chamber of the Temple of Zeus not like a spectator, but like a contestant in the Olympic Games. He then recited his histories and so mesmerized those present that his books were called after the Muses..It was not long until he was better known than the Olympic victors.” • Aelian, Varia Historia 4.9 (Plato at the Games) Plato the son of Ariston shared a tent at Olympia with some men he did not know, nor did they know him. He so gained their affection with his comradery, eating with them simply and passing the days with all of them that the strangers felt fortunate that they had met this man. He made no mention of the Akademy, nor of Sokrates. He only told them his name was Plato. Later when they visited Athens, he received them graciously and the strangers said, “Plato please take us to see your namesake the student of Socrates, take us to his Akademy, and introduce us to that man so that we can enjoy him.” He responded quietly and with a smile, “I am that man.” • Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.3.9 : “For at this festival some men whose bodies had been trained sought to win the glorious distinction of a crown, others were attracted by the prospect of making gain by buying or selling, while there was, additionally, a certain class, who were quite the best type of free-born men, who looked neither for applause nor gain, but came for the sake of spectacle and closely watched what was doen and how it was done.” • (Epictetus, Disc. 1.626-28; Miller #146) “There are unpleasant difficult things in life. But don’t they happen at Olympia? Don’t you suffer from the heat? Aren’t you cramped for space? Don’t you bathe badly? Don’t you get soaked whenever it rains? Don’t you get your fill of noise and shouting and other annoyances? But I suspect you compare all this to the value of the show and endure it.” - Philostratus, Gymnasticus 25: “The Olympic “judge of Greece” has to examine the boy athlete on the following points: whether he has a tribe and a native land, a father and a family, whether he belongs to the free citizens and is not a bastard, and finally, whether he is young and not past boyhood.” - Pausanias 5.24.9, Miller Arete # 90:“Of all the images of Zeus, the Zeus in the Bouleuterion is the one most likely to strike terror into the hearts of sinners. This Zeus…holds a thunderbolt in each hand. Besire this statue it is established for athletes, their fathers and brothers, and their trainers to swear an oath on slices of the flesh of wild boars that they will do nothing evil against the Olympic Games.” (OATH IN BOULETARION) - Thucydides 1.125: An athenian named Cylon, an Olympic victor, of good birth and an able man. He married the daughter of Theagenes of Megara, tyrant of Megara. When Cylon inquired of the Delphic oracle, the oracle told him to seize the Acropolis during the “greatest festival of Zeus.” He thought that the games must be the “greatest festival of Zeus” and that the fact that he had won at those games would be to his advantage - Herodotus 1.31.1: Kleobis and Biton were of Argive stock . . . and this story is told about them : there was a festival of Hera in Argos, and their mother absolutely had to be conveyed to the temple by a team of oxen. But their oxen had not come back from the fields in time, so the youths took the yoke upon their own shoulders under constraint of time. They drew the wagon, with their mother riding atop it, traveling five miles until they arrived at the temple. When they had done this and had been seen by the entire gathering, their lives came to an excellent end, and in their case the god made clear that for human beings it is a better thing to die than to live. The Argive men stood around the youths and congratulated them on their strength; the Argive women congratulated their mother for having borne such children. She was overjoyed at the feat and at the praise, so she stood before the image and prayed that the goddess might grant the best thing for man to her children Kleobis and Biton, who had given great honor to the goddess. After this prayer they sacrificed and feasted. The youths then lay down in the temple and went to sleep and never rose again; death held them there. The Argives made and dedicated at Delphoi statues of them as being the best of men.” - Apollodorus, Library 3.28: "Hermes took him [the infant Dionysos] to Ino and Athamas, and persuaded them to bring him up as a girl. Incensed, Hera inflicted madness on them, so that Athamas stalked and slew his elder son Learkhos on the conviction that he was a dear, while Ino threw Melikertes (Melicertes) into a basin of boiling water, and then, carrying both the basin and the corpse of the boy, she jumped to the bottom of the sea. Now she is called Leukothea (Leucothea), and her son is Palaimon (Palaemon): these names they receive from those who sail, for they help sailors beset by storms. Also, the Isthmian games were established by Sisyphos in honor of Melikertes." - Plutarch, Life of Theseus: But Theseus had long since been secretly fired by the glory of Hercules, held him in the highest estimation, and was never more satisfied than in listening to any that gave an account of him; especially those that had seen him or had been present at any action or saying of his. Theseus entertained such admiration for the virtue of Hercules, that in the night his dreams were all of that hero's actions, and in the day a continual emulation stirred him up to perform the like. Besides, they were related as second cousins - Pausanias, Description of Greece : Cercyon is said to have treated strangers wickedly, especially in wrestling with them against their will. So even to my day this place is called the Wrestling Ground of Cercyon, being a little way from the grave of Alope. Cercyon is said to have killed all those who tried a bout with him except Theseus, who out matched him mainly by his skill (sophia). For Theseus was the first to discover the art (technê) of wrestling, and through him afterwards was established the teaching of the art. Before him men used in wrestling only size and strength of body. - Plutarch Life of Theseus: He also instituted the games here, in emulation of Heracles, being ambitious because the Hellenes, by that hero's appointment, celebrated Olympian games in honour of Zeus, so by his own appointment they should celebrate Isthmian games in honour of Poseidon. For the games already instituted there in honour of Melicertes were celebrated in the night, and had the form of a religious rite rather than of a spectacle and public assembly. But some say that the Isthmian games were instituted in memory of Sciron, and that Theseus thus made expiation for his murder, because of the relationship between them; for Sciron was a son of Canethus and Henioche, who was the daughter of Pittheus. And others have it that Sinis, not Sciron, was their son, and that it was in his honour rather that the games were instituted by Theseus. - Pindar Isthmian1: But it is for Herodotus that I fashion a gift of honor, For his four horsed chariot, and for his handling of its reins with his own hands.”… I shall judge your demands even above my want (lack) of leisure - The Reward of Victory or Price of Victory? : (Pindar Isthmean 1) “Different rewards (payments- misthos) bring pleasure to men for different deeds:The shepherd, the ploughman, the bird- trapper,The man whose livelihood is in the sea; For all men strain to keep persistent hunger from their bellies. But the greatest profit is earned by the man who wins a splendid glory in war or in the games, Through praise, which is the choicest address From the tongues of citizens and strangers - Pindar Isthmean 1: And I wish to associate him [Herodotus] with a hymn to Castor or to (15) Iolaus, for they were born to be the mightiest of hero charioteers in Lacedaemon and in Thebes; and in the games they put their hands to the greatest number of contests, and graced their houses with tripods, cauldrons, and golden bowls; whenever they tasted the crowns of victory. Their excellence shines out with brightness in both naked races and in the contests where armed men run, their shields clattering; and also when they threw javelins from their hands, and when they flung discuses of stone for the pentathlon did not exist, but a prize was given for each event. - Pausanias 2.15.3: “The Argives offer burnt sacrifices to Zeus in Nemea also, and elect a priest of Nemean Zeus; moreover they offer a prize for a race in armour at the winter celebration of the Nemean games. In this place is the grave of Opheltes; around it is a fence of stones, and within the enclosure are altars. There is also a mound of earth which is the tomb of Lycurgus, the father of Opheltes (ancient description of nemean sanctuary ) - Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories (Miller #8): “Olive oil by nature makes the body warm and protects against cold, and also cools the head when heated. The Greeks, progenitors of every vice, have perverted it to luxury by its public use in the gymnasia. Their magistrates have been known to sell the scrapings of oil (gloios) for as much as $450, 000. - Pindar, Nemean 1, Strength attains its end through action And understanding through the advice of those who have the natural talent to forsee the future. Son of Hagesidamus, it is in your nature to make use of both. Money (Compare with Isth. 1)“I do not long to possess great wealth, hidden away in a place But to enjoy what I have and to be well regarded for being of service to my friends.” - Iliad 23, Achilles anticipates his own cult worship: Lines 245ff: “You need not labor over a huge grave mound for him, But only what is seemly. Later the Achaeans can build it broad and high, all of you still left amid our thwarted ships when I am gone.” - Pindar Olympian 1.90-3: And now he luxuriates in splendid blood offerings As he reclines beside the ford of Alpheus His tomb beside his altar is well tended, Thronged about by many a stranger. - Herakles, Women of Tracchis: “Not anyone, from anywhere I ever purified, could do what she, a weak, meaningless women, without a sword, with nothing, by herself, has done to me, defeated, conquered me, completely.” - Odyssey, 11.601ff: And after him I marked the mighty Heracles—his phantom; for he himself among the immortal gods takes his joy in the feast, and has to wife Hebe, of the fair ankles, daughter of great Zeus and of Hera, of the golden sandals  Pausanias, description of Gymnasium in Messene, Greece: “The statues in the gymnasium are the work of Egyptian artists. They represent Hermes, Heracles and Theseus, who are honored in the gymnasium and wrestling-ground according to a practice universal among Greeks, and now common among barbarians - Fathers and Sons, Pausanias 3.13.4: “On the road to the right of the hill is a statue of Hetoemocles. Both Hetoemocles himself and his father Hipposthenes won Olympic victories for wrestling the two together won eleven, but Hipposthenes succeeded in beating his son by one victory (hipposthenes the hero)  Pausanias 3.15.7 (Sparta): “Near is a temple of Hipposthenes, who won so many victories in wrestling. They worship Hipposthenes in accordance with an oracle, paying him honors as to Poseidon.” - Pausanias Description of Greece 6.14.8 (Miller Arete # 163a): They say that he was killed by wild beasts. In the land of Kroton he happened upon a dried up tree trunk into which wedges had been placed to split it. Milo, in his vanity, stuck his hands into the trunk, the wedges slipped, and Milo was caught in the trunk until wolves discovered him. - Pausanias 6.11.9: “The Thasians set the statue back up in its original position, and are now accustomed to sacrifice to Thagenes as to a god. I know of many places, both among the Greeks and the Barbarians, where statues of Theagenes have been set up. He is worshipped by the nateives as a healing power.” - Inscription on Offering Box (Miller Arete 167b) “Those who sacrifice to Theagenes are to contribue not less than [$3.66] in the offering box. Anyone who does not make a contribution as written above will be remembered. The money collected each year is to be given to the High Priest, and he is to save it until it has reached a total of $22,000. When this has been collected the boule and the demos shall decide whether it to be spent for some ornamentation or for repairs to the shrine of Theagenes.” - Pausanias 6.5.8-9: Poulydamas too was fated to perish through his own might. For Pulydamas entered a cave with the rest of his boon companions. It was summer-time, and, as ill-luck would have it, the roof of the cave began to crack. It was obvious that it would quickly fall in, and could not hold out much longer. Realizing the disaster that was coming, the others turned and ran away; but Pulydamas resolved to remain, holding up his hands in the belief that he could prevent the falling in of the cave and would not be crushed by the mountain. Here Pulydamas met his end. - Philostratus’ Gymnasticus- “Ages of Athletes”220’s CE, Demise of Ancient Athletics: For the old athletic training used to make Milos and Hippostheneses, and Pouludamases, and Promachoses and Glaukos son of Demulos, and also athletes before them, Peleus, and Theseus, and Herakles himself. But athletic training in the time of our fathers knew lesser men, but still amazing and worthy of recollection. But the training that has been established now has harmed the affairs of athletes so much that many are burdened by those who take delight in athletic training. - Evidence of non-nudity: Homer Iliad 23: Boxing: First he put on his zoma, girdle, then he gave him the well cut himantes of a field dwelling ox. “Then the two belted up and went into the middle of the agon.” - Pausanias 1.44.1 : Functional Argument: Orsippus of Megara (720 BCE)Orsippus (of Megara) won the stadion at Olympia by running naked when all his competitors wore loin cloths (perizomata) according to ancient custom….My own opinion is that at Olympia he intentionally let the loin clith slip off him, realizing that a naked man can run more easily than one girt. - Thucydides (1.6.5): Nudity as Cultural Marker of Greek versus “Barbarian” The Lacedaemonians also set the example of contending naked, publicly stripping and anointing themselves with oil in their gymnastic exercises. Formerly, even in the Olympic contests, the athletes who contended wore belts across their middles; and it is but a few years since that the practice ceased. To this day among some of the barbarians, especially in Asia, when prizes for boxing and wrestling are offered, belts are worn by combatants. - Philostratus, Peri Gymnastikês, Ch.18 There also, the gymnast carries a strigil, perhaps fo
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