Lecture 23 Phillip II Alexander the Great.docx

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Classical Studies
Classical Studies 2300
Charles Stocking

Lecture 23 Phillip II & Alexander the Great Hellenistic = Greek-like Hellenic = Greek Greece after the Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE Peloponnesian War (Sparta Won) 404-403 BCE Rule of the 30 Tyrants 403-371 BCE Spartan Government 372 BCE Spartan reign collapses b/c - 1. # of Spartans decreases (479 BCE = 9000; 371 BCE = 1400) - 2. Battle of Leutra – Thebes vs. Sparta (Sparta loses) 370 BCE General anarchy occurs among the city states Phillip II of Macedon 359 BCE Phillip II made king - He was sent to Thebes as a hostage as a child in exchange for Thebes’ support of Alexander II (Phil II’s brother) as King of Macedon - Phillip II learned Greek ways & warfare tactics (+improved them) - Alex II murdered  rivalry for crown  Phil II made king Phillip II: Conquest Through Strategy 1. Gained Athens as an ally – conquered Athens, then gave it back out of good faith 2. Helps Amphyctyonic League in 3 Sacred War to restore Delphi to Delphians  becomes delegate for Amphyctyonic League (MAJOR POLITICAL POWER) 3. Used political power from Amphyctyonic League to conquer Greece and creates the League of Corinth 4. Take up Panhellenism 5. 336 BCE Phillip II murdered Macedonians Using Sport to Establish “Greekness” Early evidence of Macedonians in Olympic Games 1. Alex I o Prevented from competing because he was not Greek o Proved that he descended from Argos allowed to compete o Won the stadion  4 year period named after him (establishment of Greek identity) 2. King Archelaus I o Chariot race victor at Olympic and Pythian games o Chariot race = status symbol 3. Phillip II o Keles 356 BCE o Tethrippon 352, 348 BCE Phillip II: Commemorating Wealth, Power, and “Greekness” - Earlier Greek leaders would commemorate victories through praise poems (Pindar) or monuments - Phillip II commemorated his victories with coinage depicting his victories Phillippeion: Establishing Heroic Status At Olympia 337-335 BCE 1. Olympia is a Panhellenic site  Phillipeion is meant to commemorate Phillip II uniting Greece 2. Positioned beside the Pelopeion – Phil II seemed to indicate that he was also worth of heroized status as a “King of Greece” Alexander III: Alexander the Great 336 BCE Alexander III takes the throne - League of Corinth declares Alex III General against Persia after the death of Phillip II 335 BCE In Alex III’s absence, Athens and Thebes revolt against Macedonian control - Alex III returns and completely destroys Thebes, except for the House of Pindar Alex III decides NOT to avenge Persia, but to rule over the Persian Empire – requires official forms of legitimation by the Persians (i.e. marriage into the royal family) - Political tactic – wants the Persia to acknowledge him as king Alex III’s Conquest of Persia: 334-330 BCE 334 BCE Battle of Granicus – Alexander defeats Darius (current King of Persia) 333 BCE Battle of Issus – Alexander defeats Darius and captures the family of Darius III 332 BCE Siege of Tyre – Takes Gaza 331 BCE Found Alexandria in Egypt – cultural hub of the Middle East 331 BCE Battle of Gaugamela – Decisive victor - Alex captures Babylon, Susa, and Persian capital of Persepolis (he burns to the ground) - Darius III is murdered by Persian traitor Bessus - Alex has Bessus executed and gives a royal funeral for Darius III  secures his position as ruler of Persia Alex’s War in India and Last Days: 327-323 BCE - Alex invades India during monsoon season – ends up weakening his own forces immensely - Wins Battle of River of Hydaspes against Porus of Parvataku - A mutiny at the River Hyphasis has him turn the campaign back toward Mesopotamia by way of the Indus River and Persian Gulf - Not enough ships to transport all of his men, so he traveled through the Gedrosain Desert (25K of 85K survive) 323 BCE Dies of alcohol poisoning in Persepolis after several nights of celebration - Leaves his empire “to the strongest” Alex: Spectacle over Sport - Phillip II used Panhellenic competitions to establish “Greekness” - Alexander the Great was “anti-athletics” “For it was neither every kind of fame nor fame from every source that he courted, as Philip did, who plumed himself like a sophist on the power of his oratory, and took care to have the victories of his chariots at Olympia engraved upon his
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