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Geography 1400F/G- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 38 pages long!)


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1400F/G
Professor
Godwin Arku
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Geography 1400F/G
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 10 – Geographies of Industry
Today’s Lecture
-Industry is a key component of our economy
Global industry
-Where is industry located?
- What factors influence industrial location?
- Where is industry expanding?
- What are the impacts of industrial growth?
What was the Industrial Revolution (IR)?
-A series of inventions (technologies) that transformed manufacturing
oLarge use of energy source (i.e. coal)
Before wood as the main source of energy
Coal changed the worlds energy usage because of industry’s usage
oDevelopment of the steam engine (1763)
oIntroduction of new machines and factories
oDevelopment of new transport links
Example: Riverlines
oAccumulated inventions over a period of time
-Does not mean that before the industrial revolution there were no industries
oThey aware in the simplistic form – bread making, etc.
What was the industrial revolution cont’d…
-Origins - United Kingdom –
-Between mid-18th and mid-20th centuries, industrial geography of England dramatically
transformed
-England was the first industrial area or Hearth of the IR
-Video: http://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution
-http://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution/videos/the-industrial-revolition
What was the industrial revolution cont’d…
-Why was England first?
oIR was triggered by rapid onset of new and stable political, legal, and economic institutions
throughout much of the 17th century Europe
England was the first country to capitalize on the changes
oEngland had long history of settlement, stability, security
oThese are the necessary cultural preconditions for industrialization
oPreconditions include: hard work, rationality, frugality, and education
oOthers – resources (e.g. Coal etc.)
Required a lot of energy – coal was option
What was the industrial revolution (IR) cont’d…
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-1701 Seed Drill
-1759 Canal Act
-1761 First Factory
-1764 Spinning Jenny
-1769 Steam Machine
-1793 Cotton Gin
-1797 Lathe
-1802 Health and Moral Act & First Battery
-1807 Steamboat
-1813 Industrial Employment larger than agricultural
-1820 Roads improve
-1824 Portland Cement
-1829 Railroads
-1856 Steel
-The series of inventions is continuous! Not overnight
oOne thing after the other
-All in England
What was the industrial revolution (IR) cont’d…
-Social Change:
oMove from farm to factory
oRapid urbanization – why?
Early industries made were urban centers
-Industrialization always results in improved machinery – improve techniques of farming – resulting
in increased agricultural productivity
oFarms can afford to migrate
-Industrial revolution – social change within our system
oIt is not just about industries
-
What was the industrial revolution (IR) cont’d…
-Other Social Change:
oDramatic increase in mortality
Followed by decrease in fertility
oInternational migration
-Urbanization – discovery of medicine, people will live longer, etc.
oInventions resulted in less mortality over the years
What was the Industrial Revolution (IR)?
-Economic Change:
oRise of Capitalism
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