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Geo 1500 Lecture Notes.docx

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Department
Geography
Course Code
Geography 1400F/G
Professor
All

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1Geography1500FSocietyandNatureThursdaySeptember62012FossilEnergyFossilenergyusageplastictransportationeatingoilLeadingsourceofhomeelectricitycoalOntariogovernmentphasingoutcoalOver45ofworldsenergysupplyrelatestocoalnaturalgasfossilenergyDiscussaffectsoncountriesthatusetoomuchcoalClimateChangeMostactiveinarcticPeoplefightingoveroilinarcticCouldbeicefreesummerinarcticsoonTalkaboutrollarcticplaysinworldclimatesystemArcticseaicemeltTuesdaySeptember112012Unit1ApproachingGlobalSystemsControlonclimatetheglobalmigrationofhumanspre1492PictureofcaveartinsouthernFrancefrom30000yearsagoFrancemuchdifferentintermsofclimate30kyearsagocolderLastglacialmaximumLGMinEuropeabout20000yearsagoMuchofScandinaviaandNorthernEuropecoveredinglaciationsduringthistimeContinentalshelfexposedbylowersealevelsduringLGM20kyearsagowewouldbeundericebyseveralkminLondonMapofNorthAmericaduringlastLGMAlaskalargerconnectedtoAsianoGreatLakescarvedoutwhenglaciersretreatedFloridaCaribbeanmuchlargerarcticbiggerAsglaciersadvancesealevelsdropexposecontinentalshelveskeypointSun5700degreesCelsiusbillionsofyearsagoEventuallyatmospheresformedondifferentplanetscontainingdifferentconcentrationsofkeygasesplayroleinwarmingsurfacetemperaturesWarmthdependsonproximityfromsunVenusclosertosunthanearththereforewarmerthanearthMarsfurtherawayfromsunthanearththereforemarscoolerthanearthVenusMarshavegreenhouseeffectalsoMars10degreeswarmerthanshouldbebcofgreenhousegasesthatcaptureheatVenushasextremelyhighconcentrationsofheatcapturinggasesmuchmoreCO2waterstaysasvaporhugegreenhouseeffectMarsweakergreenhouseeffectwaterstaysasice12EarthwatercondensestoliquidrightgreenhouseeffectabletodevelopwatercyclethatsupportslifeAtmosphericchemistrykeytolifeonearthComparedtoVenusMarsEarthssurfacetemperaturehasremainedremarkablyconstantEarthtemperatureshavenotvariedasmuchastheyhaveonVenusMarsGreenhouseEffectSunsendsoffshortwaveradiationEarthgiveslongwaveradiationreinventedinearthssurfacesomeofitcapturedbygreenhousegasesEnergyabsorptiontransferoccurswnatmosphereEarthwouldbe33degreescoolerthanitisifatmospherewasnttrappingheatcaptureslongwaveradiationsendsitbacktoearthtomakewarmerGreenhouseeffectheatsearthbyapproximately33degreesCelsiusAtmosphereMostofgreenhousegasesconcentratedveryclosetoearth80ofmassofearthsatmosphereinlayercalledtroposphereaverage10kmfromearthssurfaceaslittleas7to8kmawayPolesare8kmtropics15kmTroposphereroughly10kmaboveearthssurfacecontains80ofgasesthatheatearthmostactionoccurswnitAllweathersystemsoperatewnthisthinenvelopofgasaroundourplanetGreenhousegasesGHGOzonelayerjustoutsidetroposphereinstratosphereKeygreenhousegasescarbondioxidemethanenitrooxidewatervaporcarbonbyvolumeislargestgreenhousegasMethanecarbonlistedinpartspermillionbcverysmallWaterbyvolumegreaterthancarbondioxideWatervaporco2methaneNo2Ozonelayerroughly20to30kmaboveearthssurfacewsomevariationsOzonemadeupofthreedifferentformsofmoleculesOzonelayerrelativelyhigherconcentrationsofozoneinlowerpartofstratosphereOzoneimportantbckeepsheatoutabsorbsalmostallofsunsdamagingUVlightfromreachingearthssurfaceProtectsearthfrom9799ofalldangerousUVraysOzonevitaltoplantanimallifeformsWatercondensestoliquidformrightgreenhouseeffect23EvolutionofEarthOceansmarinelifeOxygenabletosustainlifeonearthwformationofozonelayerLandlifeevolves25millionyearsagobeginningofhominidlifefundamentalshiftinevolutionaryhistoryearlyevolutionofhumanspecieHumans150kto120kyearsagoHumanspecietheneffectedozonelayerevolutionofearthetcFiveperiodsoftimeinwhichspecieswentextinctaccordingtoexpertsBackgroundrateextinctionspasmtimeswhenspecieswerelostFifthextinctionwasdinosaursPaleoclimaterecordsatglobalscaleshownothugediscrepancyoverlongperiodsoftimewrespecttoearthsclimatebutstillsomechangesGlobalaveragesurfacetemperaturehasvariedby20degreesCelsiusAtextremessnowballearthwhenearthmayhavebeencompletelyfrozenHarvardguyVsPeriodswhereearthwascompletelyicefreeieageofdinosaursearthverywarmhumidproductiveThursdaySeptember132012Climateaverageweatheroverlongperiod30yearsWhydoesclimatevaryacrossearthssurfaceSidenoteuselecturesasguidetowhatsimportanttoreadfromreadershouldreadchapter1thGreenland114sizeofAfricathoughonsomemapsGreenlandlooksbiggerthanthatppllivinginsouthpreferdifferentimageofearthslayoutwheresoutherncontinentslookbiggerthanwewouldnormallyseeonmapGlobalclimatesystemextremelycomplexrangeofkeycomponentsvariationsinsolarenergyatmosphereoceancirculationseaiceglacierselevationlandsurfacebiologicalproductivityInterrelationsbwthemStartingpointdifferencesinsolarenergyreceivedfundamentaldriverofatmosphericoceancirculationTropospherewhereweatherishappeningOceanscirculateon2levelstoplevelwhichisoceanssurfaceisfirst200metresofwaterInsolationamountofsolarradiationhittingearthsatmospherepermetresquaredvarieswseasonlatitudeduetoearthsorbitaxisfactthatearthisspherecurvaturetiltorbitGreaterangleradiationcomesinatallowsittospreadovermuchlargerarea3
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