Historical Geography notes.docx

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Western University
Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

Historical Geography Settlement of Canada 1. First people  Old world hunters  The idea was that during the glacier periods, the sea level was lower than today so there was a land bridge called Beringia between Asia and Alaska. It allowed people to migrate from Asia to Alaska- known as the old world hunters  Those old world hunters travelled south in the continent to the US and that allowed them to go to the southern part of the continent  The second theory was that the people settled on the islands of the West coast, suggesting that the old world hunters island hopped. They made a coastal migration along the edge of the Cordillera ice sheet that covered all the mountains and valleys of British Columbia. By slowly moving southward along the unglaciated islands, they could of went around the Cordillera ice sheet by island hopping. They settled on an island and then after a generation or two, people would travel to a different island  Paleo Indians- descendants of Old World hunters o Devised the fluted points o The smaller prey could not provide for large numbers of people so they devised strategies involving remaining in one area and keeping people out, developing effective hunting techniques for the local game, and making extensive use of fish and plants to supplement their principal diet of the game o This link between geographic territory and hunting strategies marked the development of Paleo- Indian culture areas- GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS WITH TWO CHARACTERISTICS  A common set of natural conditions that resulted in similar plants and animals  Inhabitants who used a common set of hunting, fishing and food gathering techniques and tools o Had distinct hunting features divided into three groups  Clovis culture  Folsom culture  Plano culture o Migrated from Asian to North America (more than one theory exists)  Descendants of Old World hunters of North America  They believed that they inhabited the southern part of the continent, as the glaciers started to retreat, the people of the southern area followed the glaciers  Indians- responses to varied environmental conditions o Algonquians are direct descendants of Paleo- Indians but not sure about Athapaskans o Some decided to migrate north and maintain a life style that they learned over generations and then some people adapted to the environmental conditions that occurred  The Thule people- ancestors of today’s Inuit o Lifestyle adapted from the conditions of the arctic coast o Before people could occupy the Arctic lands, two developments were necessary  The melting of the ice sheets that covered Arctic Canada  Emergence of a hunting technique that would enable people to live in an Arctic environment  First people to develop an arctic sea- based hunting, techniques- Paleo- Eskimoan, hunting culture called Denbigh  Second: Second migration- Dorset culture replaced the Denbigh culture  Third and final arctic migration- Thule people wh o developed a sophisticated sea- hunting culture, spread eastwards from Alaska and gradually succeeded their predecessors  First contact- late 1400s through 1600s o Europeans considered the New World terra nullius or empty lands despite the fact that descendants of Old World hunters occupied all of North and South America o The end result of first contact was that the number of aboriginal people decreased due to:  Disease (Europeans brought the Aboriginal people diseases in which they had no resistance or traditional remedies for  Conflict took the form of the French who allied themselves with the Aboriginal people (Huron people) North of the great lakes and the Europeans with the south of the great lakes (Iroquois)- price was the fur trade  French and British were opponents on getting and maintaining larger fur trades  The Aboriginal people in the south suffered  Those that survived were adopted by the Iroquois nation as slaves or etc.  Aboriginal numbers decimated- perhaps by as much as 80% 2. Second people  French- predominated Quebec  British- Came later- Balance of the power between French and British were decided on the Bridges of Abraham where the Brisih defeated the French o 1. Loyalist refuses- late 1770s  People from the American colonies that wanted to stay loyal to the British crown from the American War of Independence  Britain themselves- 1790-1860 3. Third people  Wave of migrants 1880s to 1914  Occurred after the signing of treaties with various Plains Indian groups and the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)  Two benefits for Ottawa o The threat of American settlers moving into the Canadian West and adding to these lands would be diminished o The creation of a grain economy would provide transport for the Canadian Pacific Railway, thereby helping it turn into a viable operation  Some came from Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic Canada while others came from British and the United states  European background rather than French of English  Increased the population of the West  The government wanted to target people in Europe because they had a similar environment to Canada, in which they could translate their farming techniques well while British people couldn’t  Start of multiculturalism- targeted Eastern Europe Territorial Evolution of Canada  1867- BNA Act by British Parliament created the Dominion of Canada was passed by the British parliament and the BNA created the dominion of Canada at that time o Four colonies:  New Brunswick  Nova Scotia  Upper Canada (Province of Canada)  Lower Canada (Province of Canada) o The vast areas of the West (1870s- Rupert’s land) and North Western Territory (previously controlled by Hudson Bay company) added as the North-West Territories o 1871- B.C. joins Confederation o 1873- P.E.I o 1870s- Manitoba (Red River settlement surrounding the land) was added o 1880- Arctic Archipelago o 1905- Alberta, Saskatchewan created  No new land was created from this but it just got divided into these, used to be the Northwest Territories) o 1949- Newfoundland   - 1999- Creation of Nunavut o What drove the growth of the late 1800s?  For Britain- John A. Macdonald pushed for a hard united British North America because it would have a larger domestic market for its growing manufacturing industries and a stronger defensive position against a feared American invasion o 1. Better chance that its colonies would survive in the face of an ever- stronger U.S military strength o 2. Better environment for British investment–ex. Railways  Security for the US for British interest to invest money o 3. Reduced cost of defending North American colonies  For the colonies o 1. Larger domestic market for the growing industries of the province of Canada  Not dealing with international trade, so if you add territory and population, increases market o 2. Stronger defensive position against invasion by U.S o 3. 1866 Fenian (Irish Nationalists) raid into New Brunswick (idea was to hold Canada hostage as a way of forcing Britain to give Ireland its independence. After this riad, the legislatures of both New Brunswick and Nova Scotia voted to join Confederation  Before this, Atlantic colonies – part of the British Empire- showed little interest in a union with a united British North America. The Maritime colonies were happy to continue as colonies engaging in trans Atlantic trade with Great Britain in and the Caribbean  Maritime colonies were a little different. They were happy with the status coe, they weren’t keen on joining Canada. The fenians idea was to invade from the U.S and they would hold new Brunswick hostage out of forcing Ireland independence- didn’t work o 4. The end of Canadian American Reciprocity Treaty (1854-1866)  A treaty allowed for the lack of tarrifs at the board  It ended in 1866 and it meant that the maritime colonies no longer had a comfortable trade with the US to lie on and so the only possibility was to trade inside of Canada- so they combined with Canada Timeline summary: Evolution of Canada’s Internal Boundaries  National boundaries then Internal Boundaries Faultlines 1. Aboriginal/Non- Aboriginal  Ottawa vs. Aboriginals  First Government goal: Assimilation o Idea was that sooner or later the Aboriginal people will assimilate into mainstream society (with a European background)  It didn’t work  Represented the darkest chapter in history  One of the tools was assimilation in residential schools (childrens) where children were not allowed to speak their own language. It got severe where physical and sexual abuse came in play and children were expected to somehow get an identiy  Laterly: Recognized aboriginal rights and the failure of assimilation  Canadian Aboriginals represent a very diverse population- Metis, Inuit, Indian  Relationship with Ottawa has traditionally been paternalistic  Now the Aboriginal people want control over their affairs o One way is through Land claims- many settled, a number outstanding o One way was that land was unrightfully taken from them from the Federal government, a treaty wasn’t signed, so the aboriginal believed that they should be given back something in return or their land that was taken 2. Centralist/ Decentralist  Based in the diversity of the Canadian experience  Canada has always faced the challenge of linking the country  Centralists: seek to vest powers, strength and control in Ottawa o Canada is so large that it is inevitable that we have multitude of sets of physical conditions o It has always been an issue for Canada to overcome the distance- BC joined Canada on the condition that they would bind to Eastern Canada through a railway (not only so they can seen as a unified entity but feel as one) o A strong Canada has a strong federal government( can oversee all of the countries and build on the strengths and assist when things aren’t so strong  Decentralists: Want to strengthen the powers of the provinces o They believe that in order to have a strong Canada you need to give the provinces more control because who better knows what the provinces need than the provinces themselves o The faultline can be very emotional (treated them badly) because what ever decision were made in any contexts, there are winners and losers o These kinds of issues included:  Transfer payments  Ottawa collects money from all of the provinces and the money is redistributed according to funding formulas that intend to help those provinces not so well off to afford their economics  Atlantic Canada (as well as Ontario) has become a HAVE NOT nation because they received transfer payments from Ottawa  Newfoundland has become a HAVE province- redistributed money from newfoundland to other provinces because of the newfound energy  Kyoto- Alberta was not consulted when Kyoto was considered  Federal gun legislation- guns for the rural people are required in their lifestyle, they are being hassled to deal with the problems in urban areas  The distribution between the legislation should be reflecting the population- they believed that Ontario is growing so they needed more representation The regional challenge to Canada’s east-west alignment and therefore to Canada’s national unity may be summed up in 4 ways  Canadian regions are separated from each other by great distances, making trade and commerce between those regions more difficult  Regions compete with each other and provinces have trade barriers (forces derived from regional self- interest)  Provinces compete over federal funding since the division of political powers in the Canadian Constitution assigned costly services such as health care, education and social services to provinces, and only the federal government has tax revenues large enough to pay for much of these service  Geography encourages Canadian regions to fall into the economic orbit of the united states Western Alienation  Resource jurisdiction  Federal energy policies o Goes way back to the people who settled the west which began a common historical experience o A shared experience in surviving the harsh environment, struggling to succeed in thricultust, build communities etc. that carries through into the 20 and 21 century which contributes to a sense of place 1. 1959- Diefenbaker o Dual oil market to boost Western oil industry o At this point, Western oil was more expensive than imported oil o That meant that the market for Western oil was limited. What Diefenbaker did was that he divided Canada in which Eastern Ontario and Eastern Canada would rely on imported oil, and Toronto and everything Westward would rely on Western Oil- from Alberta o This takes the manufacture core and utilizes Western oil  Results: a. Bigger market for Alberta’s oil although southern Ontario has to pay more for oil so their costs go up b. Loss of market for Quebec refineries because the market for these refineries went to Soutehrn Ontario, they lost a lot of the market because they were refining imported oil and imported oil can be purchased from Eastern Ontario only ***? c. Ontario Receives higher oil costs o 1970s- World oil prices go up o Ottawa agrees to match world and domestic oil prices= big profits o The countries that produces oil said they were going to produce much and so the oil they do produce goes up at a higher price o Ottawa agrees to match world prices by increasing price for Alberta oil and Canada’s domestic prices o As the world prices go up, Ottawa prices went up to match o 1979- Matching stops o Lower domestic prices 2. National Energy Program- 1980 **? o Ottawa wanted a share of “windfall” profits o The profits that Alberta was experiencing were believed to be shared with Ottawa o Alberta was not please, because again Alberta was unhappy that Ontario and Quebec were benefiting and they were loosing (they weren’t getting as much as they could) 3. French/ English Conflict o 1 different visions of Canada o 1. Partnership of 2 founding cultural nations- French Canadians saw this o 2. A country of 10 equal provinces- English Canadians saw this  The notion of equal provinces grew out of the following factors:  The nature of Confederation was such that provincial powers were shared equally  The British formed the majority of the population in three of the four provinces, thereby dominating the political affairs of those provinces  The British, while a minority within Quebec, were the dominant business group  Revival of nationalism in Quebec  Quebec represents a distinct culture in North America and they were at a Fear of loss of culture (language, demographics etc.)  Tired of English “domination”- expectations at the part of English Canada that French Canada will always adapt to English Canada but never the other way around  Historical events- Starting with the plains of Abraham  Language laws o Education- preserve French language in schools  Because immigrants chose to learn
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