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Midterm

History 2179 Midterm: History WW1 Midterm


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 2179
Professor
Andrew Iarocci
Study Guide
Midterm

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History WW1 Midterm
Jue ,  Ahduke Faz Fediad assassiated i “aajeo …
Jul  Austia euests ad eeies Gea’s lak hek, pledgig uoditioal suppot if Russia
etes the a…
August 1 Germany declares war on Russia France order general mobilization
August 4 Britain declares war on Germany
Tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, which had already been rising for several years over
territorial disputes, escalated further.
the kaiser pledged that if Russian troops did in fact advance on Austria-Hungary, Germany would help
fight off the attakes. This guaatee is ofte efeed to as Gea’s lak hek.
On August 3, Germany, in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan declared war on France as well. Germany
ade lea its itetio to oss the eutal atio Belgiu i ode to eah Fae’s least fotified
border, in violation of its own treaty in respect to neutral countries. Therefore, Britain, which had a
defense agreement with Belgium, declared war on Germany the next day, August 4, bringing the
number of countries involved up to six. There would soon be more.
On July 25, however, Serbia accepted Austria-Huga’s deads alost etiel—aside from just a few
conditions regarding Austria’s patiipatio i the judiial poess agaist the iials. Austia-
ULTIMATUM-Huga’s espose as sift: its eass i “eia losed ithi a half hou of eeiig
“eia’s ase, ad thee das late, o Jul , Austia delaed a o “eia. On July 29, the first
Austia atille shells fell o “eia’s apital, Belgade
Russia ordered a general mobilization of its troops on July 30, 1914
Germany, interpreting this move as a final decision by Russia to go to war, promptly ordered its own
mobilization.
a mix of unfortunate lapses in judgment on the part of political and military leaders, combined with a
tangled web of alliances and defense treaties that triggered declarations of war between countries that
really had little reason to be at war with each other.
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Allied Powers: An alliance during World War I that originally consisted of Russia, France, and Britain.
Many other countries, including Belgium, Canada, Greece, Italy, Japan, and Romania, joined later as
associate powers. Although the United States never joined the Allied Powerspreferring on principle to
fight the Central Powers independentlyit cooperated closely with the Allied Powers once it joined the
war in 1917.
Schlieffen Plan: A German military plan, formulated in 1905, that addressed how Germany should
handle the threat of a war on two fronts with Russia and France.
In short, the plan stipulated that if war were expected, Germany should
first attack France before embarking upon military actions against Russia.
The rationale for this approach was that Russia would require several weeks in order to mobilize its
troops and assemble them along the German border. Under the plan, Germany hoped
to overrun France in only six weeks
 attakig aoss Fae’s odes ith Belgiu and Holland, which were less fortified than the border
with Germany.
War of Attrition: A war in which victory is determined purely by which side is better able to endure
numerous, prolonged casualties (as opposed to a war in which victory is determined by accomplishing a
specific objective, such as capturing a major city).
Attrition--the action or process of gradually reducing the strength or effectiveness of someone or
something through sustained attack or pressure.
specific goal of matching Britain on the high seas --armistice
In 1871, France had lost the territories of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany in a war--this is their motive
________________
Udeiig Gea’s “hlieffe Pla, Russia toops attaked Gea uh sooe tha epeted.
Two Russian armies, under generals Alexander Samsonov and Paul von Rennenkampf, crossed
Gea’s ode i East Pussia o August . With the ut of Gea foes foused o Fae, the
Russians advanced quickly at first and soon threatened the regional capital of Königsberg (present-day
Kaliningrad).
The Battle of Tannenberg: Tannenberg on August 26. Eventually, weakened by constant pounding from
Gea atille, “asoo’s toops ee foed to eteat. As the did so, a seod Gea a ut
off their path, completely entrapping them. A slaughter ensued in which over 30,000 Russian soldiers
were killed and an additional 92,000 taken prisoner. General Samsonov committed suicide that same
day.
Masurian Lakes, for a near repeat performance of Tannenberg. Though Reekapf’s a did
manage to retreat successfully, they did so only with another 125,000 casualties
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August 4 German troops enter Poland (Russian territory) and take three towns
August 10 France declares war on Austria-Hungary
August 12 First British troops cross English Channel into France Austrian troops enter Serbia at Sabac
Radomir Putnik - Serbian general who ambushed Austro-Hungarian forces in the Jadar Valley
Alexander Samsonov - Russian general who committed suicide after disastrous loss at Tannenberg
Paul von Hindenburg - More experienced German general who replaced Prittwitz and routed Russians
at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes
Between Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes, Russia lost approximately 300,000 soldiers in less than a
month of fighting.
Japan’s Entry into the War:
On August 23, 1914, Japan declared war on Germany in solidarity with Britain. One reason for this action
as Japa’s itet to etake soe islads i the Paifi Oea that Gea had seized as oloies i
recent decades.
a third russian army continued into austria
the armies missed eachother and russia got lucky
Russian army was able to push deep into enemy territory and force the Austro-Hungarian forces to
retreat one hundred miles with massive casualties.
first joint French-British encounters with Germany occurred near the town of Mons along the Franco-
Belgian border on August 23, 1914.
THE MARNE:
On September 5, a decisive battle began that lasted five days.
-As the Germans drove at Paris from the southeast, a gap emerged between the German First and
Second armies, and British and French commanders seized the opportunity to split the German forces
apart by moving into the gap.
the German armies found themselves unable to maintain their position on the Marne and began to fall
back. British and French forces pursued the Germans doggedly and were able to drive them back forty-
five miles, all the way back to the river Aisne.
-The western front that formed would remain centered near this position for the rest of the war.
-this first failed advance is often cited as the point when Germany lost the war it had entered with such
confidence.
Germany overextended itself by advancing too far with the limited forces it had at its disposal. The
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