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History 2403E Study Guide - Final Guide: Gallicanism, Two New Sciences, Northern Mannerism

Course Code
HIS 2403E
Jeffrey Temple
Study Guide

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Euro Exam Prep: Practice Terms
Mercantilism is an economic theory that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that a
nation's prosperity depends on its success in accumulating wealth by means of taxes, industry,
and exporting more than it imports. European nations of the 17th-19th centuries attempted to put
it into effect through commercial policies designed to produce a favourable balance of trade,
through acquisition and development of colonies as exclusive markets and sources of raw
materials, and, in England, through NAVIGATION ACTS, which made the shipping and
marketing of colonial goods the monopoly of British merchants and shippers. Mercantilism was
intended to benefit European powers. However, it has been argued that mercantilist policies left
colonial economies dependent on staple production and obstructed their industrial development.
This theory is significant to the development of Europe because it shows how the economy was
changing at the time and coming to look more and more like modern economy.

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Defenestration of Prague
Defenestration of Prague, (May 23, 1618), incident of Bohemian resistance to Habsburg
authority that preceded the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. In 1617 Roman Catholic officials
in Bohemia closed Protestant chapels that were being constructed by citizens of the towns of
Broumov and Hrob, thus violating the guarantees of religious liberty laid down in the Letter of
Majesty (Majestätsbrief) of Emperor Rudolf II (1609). In response, the defensors, appointed
under the Letter of Majesty to safeguard Protestant rights, called an assembly of Protestants at
Prague, where the imperial regents, William Slavata and Jaroslav Martinic, were tried and found
guilty of violating the Letter of Majesty and, with their secretary, Fabricius, were thrown from
the windows of the council room of Hradčany (Prague Castle) on May 23, 1618. Although
inflicting no serious injury on the victims, that act, known as the Defenestration of Prague, was a
signal for the beginning of a Bohemian revolt against the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II, which
marked one of the opening phases of the Thirty Years’ War.

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James II
James II was king of England from 1685-1688. Members of Britain's political and religious elite
increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on
becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded, and
leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew, William III of Orange, to land an
invasion army from the Netherlands, which he did. James fled England (and thus was held to
have abdicated) in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.[3] He was replaced by his Protestant elder
daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III. James made one serious attempt to recover his
crowns from William and Mary, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the
Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned
to France. He lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and
ally, King Louis XIV.
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