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Final

Health Sciences 1001A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: World Trade Organization, Infant Mortality, Coronary Artery Disease


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke
Study Guide
Final

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December 2008 Health Science Exam Notes
Film: “Whoʼs Counting?”
Economics for the people
contrast between Cathy and Benʼs jobs
United Nations Systems of National Accounts - set of rules all countries have to abide
by (environmental, market trade)
Subsistence Farming
Race as a Determinant of Health: Racism and Health
Smedley Reading
Oprah show, African Americanʼs health compared to White Americanʼs Health
hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease, diabetes, life expectancy,
mortality and coronary heart disease
salt-retention hypothesis
health of new immigrants and their health over time.
Health follows a class ladder (income and education)
gender inequities
distinguish sex and gender
biological differences should not be socially significant (women being caretakers
and not men)
gender inequities are produced by social hierarchies that divide division of
resources unevenly between men and women
are reflected in economic policies
and are mutable (liable to change)
Universal Child Care as a Public Health Policy
Canada has no universal child care policy (not Quebec)
percent of children (under 6 yrs) with access to publicly funded child care
Canada - 15%
Denmark - 65%
can be seen as an SDH
health inequality is a result of social inequality and social exclusion
Racial Inequalities in Health
in US
African men die 5.1 years earlier (average) than White men
African women die 4.3 years earlier (average) than White men
880,000 deaths could have been prevented from 1991-2000 if Black Americans
had the same health level as White American (Airplane metaphor)
Aboriginal Peoples tend to have worse health (Metis, Northern Indians, Inuits)
Asian Americans tend to have the best health out of all the minority groups.
Intersection of Race and Class as a Determinant of Health

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race includes racism, that leads to poor health outcomes (share a history of
oppression)
Vincent Navarro thinks that class is more important than race (classical marxist - neo
marxist)
International Journal of Health Services
African Americans have the highest infant mortality rate no matter what social class
they are in (education)
infant mortality rate decreases as motherʼs educational level increases
BUT African mothers with college degrees still have higher infant mortality rates than
White mothers with a highschool diploma.
infant mortality related to race
Race
social and political construct used to classify people based on their physical
appearance
different from ethnicity
there is no biological basis to race.
What is racism? ideology, set of beliefs that is personal prejudice, take shape in
governments, businesses, education, and institutions
affects health by social exclusion
Segregation
Dissimilarity Index (New York had a dissimilarity index of 81)
effects of segregation on:
social exclusion
economic opportunity
healthy choices
environmental hazards
housing
schools
crime
incarceration
the “poverty tax”
racism is an unacknowledged privilege (invisible knapsack)
race as a social product and not a property of individuals
First Nations People and their Health
leading causes of death: injury and circulatory disease
big gap for males and females aboriginals when it comes to injury and poisoning (way
more aboriginal men die from injury and poisoning)
leading cause of death below the age of 45 is suicide
3/4 of deaths from 1-9 years old come from injury from car accidents, drowning, fires
low suicide rates in areas with lots of community factors (name these community
factors)
high suicide rates in BC
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in Northwest Territories, Aboriginals have more likely to use drugs and alcohol
excessively.
Life expectancy: man 7.4 years earlier, woman 5.2 years earlier
Infant Mortality Rates: 1.5X the national rate
TB Rates are 8-10X higher
Colonialism: involves oppression
reference (standard) group vs. inferior group
experience of inferiority and hopelessness
Internal colonization: attempt to assimilate a certain group into the mainstream culture
Cultural genocide
Residential schools in Canada (“Killing the Indian in the child”)
increase of aboriginal people living in urban areas (1% to 49%) after WW2
fewer aboriginal people complete all levels of education
educational attainment improving
unemployment rate
Aboriginals on reserve have extremely low income ($2000 annually)
income gap in widening and worsening, leading to health disparities
Housing:
90X more likely to have no piped water supply
5X more likely to have no bathroom facilities
2X more likely to be in need to major repair
Indian Act:
can be thought of racism as structuralism
built into institutions
Film: “Finding Dawn”
no sense of urgency when aboriginal people go missing
Violence and Aboriginal Women
3/4 of Aboriginal women have suffered violence
mortality rate : 3X higher
exposure to drugs and violence related to prostitution
aboriginal women affected by colonialism (disconnection)
experience of violence increases risk of HIV
experience of violence increases substance abuse
little knowledge about HIV and its risks
challenges with confidentiality (doctor being our neighbour)
aboriginal women are “DOUBLY OTHERD” (double disadvantaged)
Globalization, Trade and Health
World Bank and IMF (differences)
World Bank - loans
IMF - economic assistance
SAPs (Structural Adjustments Programs) - loans given to countries, but countries have
to follow their rules
World Trade Organization (WTO) - supra-national organization, free trade, 3 jobs
provides a forum (meeting place) for trade negotiations between countries
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