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Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke
Study Guide

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Health: overall condition of body and mind, and the presence or absence of illness/injury
-beyond your control (ie. genes, health care, health care you received as a child)
-state of complete well-being not merely absence of disease
-positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources plus physical capabilities
Wellness: extended idea of health, largely determined by decisions you make (controlling risk
-dynamic goal
-encompasses 7 interrelated dimensions
1. Physical wellness
-fitness level
-ability to care for yourself
-influences quality and length of life (Health-related quality of life=personal sense of
physical and mental health. Requires capacity to work, play and maintain satisfying
2. Interposal/Social wellness
-essential to physical and emotional health
-defined by your ability to develop and maintain satisfying and supportive relationships
-requires participating in the community, communicating, support networks etc.
3. Intellectual Wellness
-one of most important aspects of wellness
-includes openness to new ideas, ability to process and use information
-constantly challenging your mind
4. Occupational wellness
-sense of personal satisfaction due to job/job development
-involves work-life balance
5. Emotional Wellness
-optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control
-ability to understand and deal with your feelings (with professional help if needed)

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6. Environmental wellness
-personal health depends on health of planet
-based on livability of surroundings (ie. safety of food, violence level)
7. Spiritual Wellness
- Having a set of guiding beliefs/principles that give meaning and purpose to one’s life
- Involves capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, altruism etc.
Altruism: understanding what other peoples are going through
- Focus on positive=decrease in stress
- Core of wellness
-examine current health and choose target behaviour
Target Behaviour: isolated behaviour selected as the subject of a behaviour change program
-find accurate information about target behaviour to help set goals
-get help
Determinates of Health: 12 factors that influence the health of individuals and groups
-income and social status
-education and literacy
-social environments
-personal health practices and coping skills
-biology and genetics
-social support
-employment/working conditions
-physical environment
-health services
-healthy child development
Risk factor: condition that increases a person’s chance of disease or injury
Why is behaviour Change Difficult
Individuals must:

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1. know that a behaviour is associated with a health problem (ie. smoking=primary cause of
lung cancer)
2. Believe and accept that the behaviour makes them susceptible to this health problem (ie.
Smoking will increase my risk of getting lung cancer)
3. Recognize that risk-reduction strategies exist (ie. programs to help you quit smoking)
4. Believe benefits of new behaviour outweigh cost of giving up old behaviour (ie. health
benefits from not smoking outweigh temporary pleasure of smoking)
5. Feel that significant others want them to change and will support their efforts (ie. friends
who smoke wont smoke around me)
-if one of these conditions is not in place, likelihood of success is diminished
Behaviour Change: lifestyle management process that involves cultivating healthy behaviours
and working to overcome unhealthy ones
Changing Health Related Behaviour
-examine pros and cons to change
-boost self-efficacy
Self Efficacy: belief in your ability to take action and perform a specific task
-develop internal locus of control
Locus of Control: figurative place a person designates as a source of responsibility for the
events in his/her life
Internal locus=believing you are in control of own life
External locus=believing factors beyond your control, control your life
-create new vision of self
-positive self-talk
-social support
-identify and overcome barriers
Transtheoretical Model for Behaviour Change
-developed by Prochaska and Diclemente
-studied individuals changing long standing problem behaviours
-moved through 6 stages
STAGE 1: Precontemplation
-no intention of changing behaviour within next 6 months
-people don’t think they have a problem
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