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Health Sciences 1002A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: John Mckinley, Free-Trade Zone, Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1002A/B
Jessica Polzer
Study Guide

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Social Determinants of Health Final Exam Review
Class 1: Social Model of Health
Social System:
Structures within society (health care, gov.)
Patterns of social interaction
Socially created characteristics of human life
Lifestyle explanations rooted in belief of individualism
Analyzed individually, separately from the world
Individual Perspective on Health:
Conceptualizes the problems w/ health from within the individual
Fails to treat individual’s social situation (modifying behaviours, preventative
Inadequate because it neglects social conditions
Social Perspective on Health:
Sociological ways of thinking
Dynamic relationship between individuals and social systems
Helps to explain why particular groups/populations suffer consistently
Social Model of Health:
3 Components:
1. Social production and distribution of illness (materialistic things)
2. Social construction of health and illness (vary across culture & history)
3. Social organization of health care (health care does not equal health)
Social Determinants of Health:
Social environments in which people live in the determine their health
Housing, job security, working conditions, education class, gender, social safety net,
aboriginal status
Quantity of social determinants reflects how society is organized and how resources
are distributed
Lifestyle Factors:
Exercise, diet, weight, tobacco/alcohol/drug use
Social factors are better predictors of health
“Picard Top 10 Lifestyle Factors”: Smoking, diet, exercise, stress, alcohol, sun exposure,
sec, medical checkups, driving, CPR education
Class 2: Medical Dominance, Public Health and Health Promotion
Biomedical Model:
Conventional approach to medicine “scientific approach”
Individualistic model (disease and health existing within the individual/cause of
disease located within the body)
Machine metaphor: Body (machine) doctors (mechanics)
Reductionalist view: Isolate illness to biological factors only to find causes
Tendency to blame victims with “lifestyle choices”
5 Assumptions of the Biological Model:
1. Health is biologically determined
2. Body-as-machine
3. Health Care = Curing Disease
4. Medicine is scientific
5. Doctor is authority
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Specific Etiology:
There is a specific cause for every disease that can be treated identically not varying
on the individual
Cartesian Dualism:
Mind and body are separate (Rene Descartes)
Mind vs. Matter
Biological Determinism:
Specialized doctors only view the body in parts
Disease care system not health care system
Medical Dominance:
Power of the medical profession with control over own work, workers, resource
allocation, policy
Controls hierarchy of health care workers
Professional Autonomy:
The right an privilege to make decisions & act as a doctor
Role in diagnosis and treatment
Control over knowledge base (control of who can apply knowledge)
Control gained by confirmation of others
Superior status of medicine in public perception
Flexner Report 1910:
Standardization of medical education
Limited to upper class white men
Did not educate women or blacks
Ivan Illich
Any adverse outcome or harm result of medical treatment
o Ex. False diagnosis, infection after surgery, chemo
Who Definition of Health:
State of complete physical, mental, social wellbeing
The Lalonde Report 1974:
Mark Lalonde
Proposed health field concepts: Human biology, environment, lifestyle, health care
Ottawa Charter 1986:
Produced by WHO
International health conference to build healthy public policy to strength community
actions/reorient health services
Population Health Approach 1994:
Importance of population-level social, economic, & environmental factors
Health is a capacity or resource, not a state
Proximal Determinants of Health: Individual behaviour, biological mechanisms
Fundamental Determinants of Health: What shapes proximal determinants of
Branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease
and other factors relating to health
Public Health:
Snow/Virchow/Engels advocated for public health
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Policies/programs/services designed to keep citizen’s health & improve their quality
of life
Public Health Agency of Canada 2004
Programs to encourage health living, prevent/control infectious/chronic illness, monitor
health/water safety, ensure emergency preparedness
Class 3: The Development of National Health Insurance in Canada
Canada’s publically funded national health insurance
All residents of Canada have access to insurance
Funding largely sourced from the federal government
History of Medicare Timeline:
o 1932- CCF (co-operative commonwealth federation) party formed in Calgary
dedicated to formation of welfare state
o 1942- Beveridge Report
o 1945- Universal medical insurance proposed at Dominion-Provincial conference on
o 1947- Saskatchewan Hospital Services Plan
o 1957- Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act
o 1958- Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act passed
o 1961- Saskatchewan CCF government introduced medical insurance
o 1961- Royal Commission on health services headed by Justice Emmett Hall, appointed
to investigate medical services
o 1962- Doctors strike in Saskatchewan
o 1966- National medical care insurance provided (Medical Care Act)
o 1971- All provinces fully participated in Medicare
o Late 1970s “extra billing” by doctors
o 1984- Canada Health Act passed unanimously in parliament
Primary Health Care:
1st point of contact with health care system
Doctor’s in private practices (fee-for-service) or clinical settings (salary)
Private vs. Public Insurance:
Public (Right) Funded through public taxes by government
Private (Commodity) Private corporations motivated by profit
The Canada Health Act 1984:
Conditions and criteria for insurance
Equity/right to health care
5 Principles: Public admin, comprehensiveness, universality, portability, accessibility
Beveridge Report 1942:
Recommended people pay insurance
Influential document in founding welfare state
Welfare State:
Government assumes primary responsibility for welfare of citizens, protection of citizens,
Social safety net
o Collections of services provided by the government, social welfare services
Tommy Douglas:
CCF (Cooperative commonwealth federation)
Father of socialized medicine
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