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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 3071A/B
Anita Cramp

Week 1 02/26/2013 Health Definition 1) Traditional: absence of disease/illness, infectious disease was primary health concern 2) Normative: state of optimum capacity of individual for effective performance of roles & tasks for which  (s)he has been socialized 3) Holistic: state of COMPLETE physical, social & mental well­being and not merely absence of  disease/illness Realize aspirations & satisfy needs; to change/cope w/ environment Health as a RESOURCE for everyday living, not objective 4) Health Canada: health is a resource, not a state; being able to pursue goals, acquire skills, education  & to grow Capacity of people to adapt to, respond to or control life’s challenges and changes Disease: disorder of structure/function that produces specific symptoms or that affects specific location  and is not simply a direct result of physical injury Major types: Cancer Viral/bacterial Heart Digestive Thyroid Blood STIs Classification: Communicable : caused by infective agents (ie. Bacteria, virus, fungi, parasite) Non­communicable : caused by all other agents aetiological (causation) agents (ie. Cancer, respiratory,  cardiovascular, autoimmune) Modifiable Ie. Occupation, high­stress lifestyle, high fat/sugar diet, smoking, alcohol, drug abuse, lack of personal  hygiene Non­modifiable Ie. family Week 2 02/26/2013 Health Goals for Canada For every person to be as healthy as they can be, physically, mentally, emotionally & spiritually Basic needs : water we drink, food we eat, places we live, work and play are safe & healthy Social Inclusion : everyone has sense of belonging & contributes to supportive families, friendships &  diverse communities Continual learning through formal & informal education, relationship & the land Participate and influence decisions that affect our personal & collective health and well­being Healthy Living: every person receives support & info. needed to make healthy choices A system for health: we work to prevent and are prepared to respond to threats to our health and  safety through coordinated efforts across the country & around the world For timely & appropriate care Inequalities & Inequities are all around us Ie. Kasheshewan, Northern Ontario evacuated due to E­coli; gov’t wanted to uproot community 1) Health Inequality: diff. in health achievements  equality assumes that we’re all going to end up at the SAME level, therefore SAME outcomes ie. Gender, age, race (diff. population groups) 2) Health Inequity: presumes fair & even distribution of resources unfair & unjust no one should be disadvantaged from achieving full health potential create equal opportunities for health & w/ bringing health differentials down to lowest possible level Week 2 02/26/2013 Determinants of Health: Income & social status Social support networks Education Employment & working conditions Physical enviro.  Weather, geography, pollution, air, water Biology & genetics Personal health practices & coping skills Healthy child dev’t Health services & social services Social enviro. Gender Culture Ecology: study of relationship between organisms and their environments Ecological Approach: complex interaction between individual and his/her social & physical  environment Social Ecological Model:  Week 2 02/26/2013 Individual shapes and is shaped by his/her social environment Principles are consistent w/ Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) – creating enviro. Conducive to health is key! Not everyone has access to food (ie. Food deserts) Principles: 1) Health influenced by variety of factors Influences on individual: 1. Individual : perceived control, personality, attitudes, age, genetics, gender, SES,  employment status 2. Interpersonal : peers & family 3. Organizations : school & work 4. Community : associations 5. Political: gov’t 2) Individual and environmental factors interact (reciprocal  determinism) 3) Person­environment fit is key: need to change enviro to support  change of behaviour (ie. High physical activity and no bike paths is mismatched) 4) Proximal and distal environments may be interdependent 5) Interdisciplinary approach is necessary Policy Level: Week 2 02/26/2013 Planning policies Transport policies Education Health (ie. Flu shots free bcuz people wouldn’t get them if they were costly) Environmental policies Workplace policies Funding policies Individual correlation to physical activity for adolescence Sex (male) Ethnicity (white) Age (inverse) Perceived activity competence Intentions Depression (inverse) Sensation seeking Previous PA Enjoy PE class ** primarily psychological predictors of PA (ie. Theory of Planned Behaviour) but we can’t fully understand  and explain behaviour from this Ecological approach Notion of setting and physical enviro Where does PA take place? Community sports, school, home, workplaces Notion of interpersonal factors Parent support, support from others, sibling physical activity, direct help from parents (paid fees) Parent education Role models Availability of resources Parents need to see value of you exercising Week 3 02/26/2013 Ecological Models, Individual Responsibility, and Human Dignity Week 3 02/26/2013 Ecological models can enhance human dignity by moving beyond explanations that hold individuals  responsible for disease What makes us healthy/unhealthy? 1. Individual determinants: genetic, biological, lifestyle/behavioural 2. Social determinants: physical, community conditions, and/or economic/financial 3. Environmental determinants: physical, economic/financial 4. Institutional determinants: capacity, capabilities, & jurisdiction of public sector institutions and  wider public policy framework support services they provide (ie. Working environment) Biology & genetics video Your genetic info. Could be used against you (ie. Employment discrimination) Increased abortions due to baby being diseased or disabled No autonomy & it creates stress Epigenetics: if gene(s) will be expressed or not Methyl groups (carbon & hydrogens, histones – how tightly wound) Genome does work, epigenome tells it what to do What you eat can change
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