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Kin 1080 Dr.Heath Psycho-Motor Learning 1st Test

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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Topic #1 Motor Learning: Aset of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to a relatively permanent gain in performance capability Motor Control: An area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical, and behavioural aspects of movement Psychology+Neuroscience+Engineering+Education= Motor Learning/Control Psychology 1. The brain as a computer: the serial nature of information processing (one function at a time, in order) 2. Memory for different tasks: motor tasks vs. cognitive tasks Engineering Human Engineering 1. Arthur Melton (UM) - pilots can be selected based on specific individual abilities - Lt. Colonel, professor - had to make up tasks so the US army could pick good pilots (light with reaction time) - only way to be a good pilot is to practice/experience that will ensure success in complex skills 2. Paul Fitts (UM) - too many air plane accidents the result of faulty human/machine interface (1st person to understand) - poor spatial mapping/compatibility - forefather of the field of ergonomics - how we process information influences our interactions with machines and computers Neuroscience Reciprocal Innervation - first understood by C.S Sherrington (physician, UK) - suppresses activity of an antagonist muscle when agonist active - connects structure and function - explains phenomenon such as walking and reaching (rhythmical, stereotype) - final common path at the spinal cord produce muscle contraction - antagonist muscle contracting= inhibitory muscle relaxing - in the past 30 years, brain scans/models etc help link structure + function Physical Education Franklin M. Henry - examined whole body movements and developed experimental approaches to understanding how we "learn" to produce complex movements - first person to scientifically/systematically research how you learn a new motor skill Topic #2 Central Nervous System + Peripheral Nervous System = Nervous System Hierarchical Organization of the CNS The Hierarchy (Classic/Historical View, 1940-1950s, not necessarily correct) - Think of the Cerebral Cortex as the "big boss", it tells everyone else what to do and when to do it (all info interpreted, outgoing signal originates here) - Think of the thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum as being second in command (intermediator contents between the Cerebral Cortex and the Brain stem, subcortical structures) - The brainstem is third in command (relay station) - The spinal cord (relay station from subcortical structures to muscles, Brainstem same) is a "slave" system to all the above Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) Physician living in Italy. People thought to flex you would move fluid in body. He was skinning a frog, their sciatic nerve was exposed. When static electricity of the scalpel hit the frog, there was sparks and leg moved. “Animal/Bio Electricity” Speed of Nerve Conduction RT History Helmholtz (1850s) - interested in speed of nerve conduction (how fast a nerve can convey a message to a muscle) - used isolated muscle and motor nerve of a frog - measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contraction Helmholtz (1850s) – estimate speed of human nerve conduction – measured reaction time in response to electrical stimulus to 2 points (ex. Foot, thigh) – nerve conduction velocity very fast (35-60 m/s) in the frog – that speed is about 1/10 the speed of sound (speed of sound 1238km/h) Diseases of the Nerve 1. Disease of the nerve influences amplitude of nerve conduction -Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or more commonly to as Lou Gehrig's disease - What happens when the amplitude of nerve impulse is diminished? 2. Disease of the myelin influences conduction of speed - Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - Destroys the myelin in patches along the CNS - Note the cortical lesion: these occur along multiple points in the CNS; hence the name Multiple Sclerosis Neurons and the Neuromuscular System – AnAMN with all the parts (extrafusal) innervated =AMU Motor (efferent) Neurons - transmit motor commands down the spinal cord (top down) Sensory (afferent) Neurons - transmits signals to, and up, the spinal cord - receive initial information from our sensory organs (bottom up) Neuron Types Important for Motor Control Dorsal Root Ganglia- sensory information enters through (incoming) to the CNS Dorsal and Ventral do NOT interact with each other, strong isolation between the 2 Ventral Root Ganglia- front of the spine, sensory information leaves through (outgoing), leaves the CNS Phrenology and Modern Neuroscience Later half of the 18th century. Philosophers proposed that there was distinct regions of the brain for different elements and you could measure things from ear to ear. **research**. Invevo- look in the brain while people are doing cognitive motor tasks, functions, interactions David Hubel: Nobel Laureate (Canadian from Windsor) - Single cell recording of V1 in the awake cat - Won a nobel Prize - Binocular cells in V1 - blobs=colour ensembles in cylindrical shapes - interblobs=orientation sensitive blob=specific type of cell, only active for colour when the colour is presented in a specific orientation interblobs= dispersed between the blob cells, only became active for detecting specif orientations (edge and shape discrimination) **- there are binocular cells in the PVC, they blend together info from your L and R eye integration- stereopsis, depth perception,vision plasticity in the PVC, put a pirate patch over an eye of a kitten when they were born (kept on for 6 weeks), kitten never developed the ability to estimate/perceive depth - critical period for when a brain develops these binocular cells, if you deprive it, the binocular cells wont develop into binocular cells - lazy eye patch, don’t do it when they are in early development -measured the electrical activity of a single neuron in an awake cat, in awake cat you can see how neurons fire in response to a specific stimuli Cortical Structures Occipital Lobe - the centre of our visual processing - contains primary and secondary visual areas (primary visual cortex-very important, "V1"-victory1, initial processing structure) - amount of space to process visual, not proportional to other areas, about the size of a credit card, very densely packed with neurons Secondary- assist V1 with interpreting visual info v1- cortical magnification, influenced because of the geometry of our eyes. Corner of our eyes are blurry, more neurons dedicated to central. V1 disproportionally represents central vs peripheral vision Parietal Lobe Think of the parietal lobe as sensory to motor interface Inferior (IPL parietal lobe): planning movement, initiate/intention to move (decide to reach out and grab coffee) Superior (SPL): integrating sensory information for controlling action (goalie sees puck coming off deflection, change/modify/adapt an ongoing movement) Parietal Lobe: - S1 located in the Post Central Gyrus (ridge, located on Cerebral Cortex, large area) - integrating sensory information, using it to plan, control movement contains primary somatosensory cortex - responsible for the planning and control o movement - visuospatial skills (right PL) - damage: issue with making/modifying a movement Damage to RPL: visual neglect, cant see left side - attend to visual stimuli in their right visual field, not information within their left visual field - deficit in left visual field - our ability to attend to our LVF, is mediated by our RPL (everything is crossed) - profound inability to attend in their left visual field arising from their RPL region (not to do with a visual deficit, it is with brain) There are ways visual neglect can be mediated from rehabilitation After Treatment - wear goggles to physically shift of their visual see, what they see to the left side Temporal Lobe – function in visual objet recognition – contains primary auditory cortex – location of the hippocampus- seahorse [subcortical cortex, not part of the cerebral cortex] (memory and learning) – Synaptogenesis, a function mediated by the hippocampus (provides for new connections to the brain, important for learning new things, cognitive memories-formula, columbus 1492, personally relevant) – learning and memory in the interaction with hippo and temporal is explicit to the cognitive memories – primary function in the visual recognition of object (helps us recognize stuff- people, things) – “Seat of our Visual Perception”- ability to recognize things and people – left temporal lobe is thought to be the seat of the primary auditory cortex (left cerebral hemisphere) – majority of the population, language lateralized to the left temporal lobe Frontal Lobe – functions in working memory – contains primary and secondary motor areas – compared to other species, we have an over developed – our conscious identity itself is mediated by our frontal lobe – strong role in working memory (type as prof talks) – contains M1 (primary motor cortex), resides on the pre-central gyrus (between parietal and frontal) – m1 sends the majority of info from the brain to the spinal cord therefore getting the muscles to move – secondary motor areas: the supplementary (SMA) and the pre-motor (PMA) = modifying activity associated with M1 Damage to M1 – very severe movement deficit, worst – chronic inability to perform fine motor movements/control (fingers) – contralateral damage – behaviour known as: power grip (big grab, cant perform a precision grip-independent control of fingers) Subcortical Structures Brain Stem – role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness.All information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain. (autonomic HR, BP etc) – For attentional control- specifically direct our eyes to visual stimuli – Superior Colliculus- orient/move your eyes in an assailant symptoms, move eyes to important visual stimuli, flash of light Basal Ganglia – group of varied origin nuclei connected to thalamus and cerebral cortex – play an important role in excitation of M1 neurons – BG Nuclei have strong connections from and to cerebral cortex and they excite M1 neurons** – BG deficit= Parkinson's disease – procedure called paladotomy- allows neurons from M1 to become excited again Cerebellum: – involved in the coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance and equilibrium and muscle tone – possibly involved in working memory (L&R hand movements doing different tasks) – rubbing stomach and patting head, 2 distinct movements – new memory formation-implicit, motor memories (synaptogenesis-formation of new synapses) – new motor skills – “clock mechanism” within the central nervous system, takes time/keeps track, knows when to communicate for muscle contraction/relaxation Stuttering- difficulty timing, “soft cerebellar deficit” CerebellarAttaxia- reduce muscle tone, cant control both limbs together, long-term/chronic impairment What is a Stroke? Importance for our understanding of the brain? Hemorrhagic Stroke- Rupture of arterial wall leading to bleeding within the brain - Blood very toxic to neurons Ischemic Stroke: - Blockage of artery (blood flow) to or within the brain – Lack of oxygen (anoxia) leads to neuronal death – smaller lesion, but could be on a very pivotal part of the brain Tissue dies, goes back through the blood. Brain does not grow back. Localized lesions may impair very specific types of cognitive and cognitive-motor functions. Primary Motor Cortex (M1) – resides on the pre-central gyrus – sends 50% (majority) of the axons that leave the brain and enter to the spinal cord Wilder Penifeld Movement can be directly produced only by a very specific region of the Cortex - the Motor Cortex (MI). 2 German Physicians, mapped the brains of dogs, found motor cortex John Hughlings Jackson- physician, neurological deficits, wife had epilepsy, recorded before-during- after, when his wife had a seizure it spread through an organization fashion throughout her body, involuntary began in her fingers, up arm to neck (always did this), knew when she was about to have a seizure. Hypothesized that the brain had a specifically organized fashion Fast Electrical Stimulation of M1- Motor Cortex elicit simple movements (i.e., a twitch) in response to mild electrical stimulation – he found the PMC, had a specific mapping (Homunculus) distinct parts of the body are in distinct representation on the PMC (fewer neurons in toes vs fingers, face is over represented- speech) – Found the same basic somatotopic representation in S1 – PMC gets signals from other parts of the brain and take it and transmit it to the spinal cord to synapse on a single neuron-- recent research proves wrong – Wrong: 1. simplicity of the PMC- M1 neurons are sensitive to tuning movement directions Raster Plot- basic technique to demonstrate activation of a single neuron, each mark on the plot represents a depolarization (how fast the neuron is firing). Codes for the direction of a response, more than just a final common pathway for action. Locked-in Syndrome Cerebromedullospinal disconnection – patient is conscious and awake but cannot communicate due to paralysis of nearly all (or sometimes complete) voluntary muscles – frequently caused by damage to specific portions of the lower brain stem – see story of Jean-Dominique Bauby “The Diving Bell and the Butterfly” Primary Motor Cortex (M1) –
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