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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Kinesiology Test #1 Notes Topic #1: Psycho-Motor Learning Plasticity: the ability to learn and acquire new skills; laying down new neural connections Extrafusal muscle fibres: power-producing muscle fibres; adduct, abduct, stand, or flex; muscles run in parallel dimensions (different than cardiac or smooth muscle) Intrafusal muscle fibres: designed to detect stretch; tells central nervous system where you limb is relative to your body *Motor learning: a set of internal processes associate with practice or experiences leading to a relatively permanent gain in performance capability; relatively permanent change  Performance effect- learn a new skill and forget it after a day  Learning effect- remembered new skill after a day *Motor control: an area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical, and behavioural aspects of movement; how the brain develops a motor program which is then sent to the extrafusal muscles Mother Disciplines: 1. Psychology: starts in 50s/60s with Shiffron (who dealt with how we learn and store info); he came up with the term: short-term memory system; contributes to our learning of new information a. The brain as a computer: the serial nature of information processing; serial and discrete st nd fashion; 1 info has to be completely processed before the 2 could be processed i. Semantic information: knowledge based info b. Memory for different tasks: motor tasks versus cognitive tasks- movement learning vs semantic learning; supported by distinct structures in the central nervous system 2. Engineering: human info processing a. Arthur Melton- pilots can be selected based on specific individual abilities; developed simple tasks to identify fighter pilots for the WWII b. Paul Fitts- wondered why a high percentage of pilots were crashing their planes as they were about to land; first person who considered how people process info, because it influences our interactions with machines and computers i. He found there was incompatible special organization and recognition of switches/lights in the cockpit ii. He was the forefather of the field of ergonomics 3. Neuroscience: th a. Reciprocal innervation (or inhibition): occurred in the late 19 century; first understood by C.S. Sherrington who was interested in function of the neural system and how it relates to movement (all skilled movement) i. Suppresses activity of an antagonist muscles when agonist active- contraction is when the agonist does not occur (agonist- causes action; antagonist- blocks action) ii. Explains phenomenon such as walking and reaching iii. Final common path at the spinal cord produce muscle contraction 4. Physical education: Franklin M. Henry was the first to study gross body movement a. Examined whole body movements and developed experimental approaches to understand how we ‘learn’ to produce complex movements Topic #2: The Nervous System  The Central Nervous System: comprised of brain and spinal cord  The Peripheral Nervous System: specifically looking at the semantic division; Intrafusal muscles and how information is conveyed to the semantic division  The hierarchy: the cerebral cortex is the ‘big boss’ and it tells everyone else what to do and when to do it o The thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum are second in command, the brainstem comes next, and lastly the spinal cord is a ‘slave’ system to all the above (final common pathway)  Luigi Galvani (1737-1798): ‘animal electricity’; how muscles contract; he hooked a frog up to a lightning rod; the ability for muscles to move is bioelectric Neurons: building block of CNS; what happens to neuron as function of learning; it has a speed of 90 meters per second as a result of heavily myelinated axon Motor unit: a single alpha motor neuron and all muscle fibres it innervates; alpha motor neuron is an extrafusal muscle fibre (allowed limb to move)  Alpha motor neuron disease: lower motor neuron disease; upper motor neuron disease caused damage to neurons in cerebral cortex Speed of Nerve Conduction: Helmhotz (1850s): used isolated muscle and motor nerves of a frog; measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contraction  He measured reaction time in response to electrical stimulus to two points; nerve conduction velocity was very fast (35-60m/s); that speed is about 1/10 the speed of sound Diseases of the nerve: 1. Disease of the nerve: influences amplitude of nerve conduction (ex amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease); the quality of signal conveyed can be less and less (like radio as you get further from home) 2. Disease of the myelin: influences conduction speed (ex multiple sclerosis (MS); destroys the myelin in patches along the CNS); it has a systematic influence Different types of neurons: Motor neuron: an efferent; transmits information DOWN into the spinal cord Sensory neuron: an afferent; transmits signals to, and UP the spinal cord to sub-cortical structures Cortical Structures : Occipital Lobe : the centre of our visual perception; contains primary and secondary visual areas Primary Visual Cortex (V1): processes first visual input; crude processing of the properties of a viewed object  Characterized by cortical magnification: more neurons devoted to our central vision than those devoted to peripheral vision o The visual projections from peripheral do not have as many neurons mapping the vision; asymmetrical; central vision has high spatial resolution images  Cortical blindness: lesions to primary cortex; unable to perceive visual stimuli; eyes are fine, but they can’t use vision to see objects; they can use vision to move and navigate surrounding shows dissociation of vision between movement and perception Binocular Vision (V2): a class of cells (neurons) called binocular disparity neurons that allow you to generate a 3D image in your mind; perceive depth identified by David Hubel  The combination of information from both eyes forming a 3D image in one’s mind- he showed that if one eye is covered or defective during early childhood and the general time of formation of these neurons, they will never develop properly  This was a critical development period for binocular disparity cells; if prevented, those cells will not develop and will never have stero division (depth perception) o *important for current care of ophthalmological health in infants o ***David Hubel***: developed a method for a single cell recording of V1 in the awake cat; binocular cells in V1; he defined blobs and Interblobs which are both important for biological movement o Blobs: colour ensembles in cylindrical shapes o Interblobs: orientation sensitive V3 D: originates in V1; goes to structure in parietal cortex- important because it supports vision or action (ex viewing you writing something) V3 V: from V1 and goes to infer-temporal lobe (temporal lobe); visual pathway for perceptions (ex making judgement on something you see) V4: works with V1; more sophisticated processing; intermediate associations with size of object; make identifications of simple geometric shapes V5 (area MT): important for movement; detect motion (self or external environment) in visual cortex critical to navigate through our environment Parietal Lobe : contains primary somatosensory cortex (SI); responsible for the planning and control of movement (voluntary); role in visuo-spatial skills/processing; interphase between sensory and motor commands Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL): critical for planning a movement; most recently developed and sophisticated part; people with lesions cannot really do much Superior Parietal Lobe (SPL): online or feedback control of action; incorporated position of already moving limb and change; used visual feedback to ensure successful response; people, with lesions to this part, take longer to ‘grab’ something takes them a few tries to line up their hand with grabbing the object  With a hemorrhage/stroke on Parietal Lobe (right): visual-spatial neglect (blindsight); high level disorder because they have a difficulty taking parts of a whole scene and making one entire image from it- they don’t attend to visual stimuli in lesioned area o They see it, but they don’t attend to it o Important for clinical diagnosis; environment may be high risk; you can use prison goggles which are optical wedges which would shift vision/field of sight to one side or the other (in this case the left side) Anterior Intraparietal Area (AIT): provides movement system with critical info to support grasping Parietal Occipital Area (PO): transportation of limb (transport phase of the movement); both this and the AIT show how modular our brain can be Temporal Lobe : function in visual object recognition; contains primary auditory cortex; location of the hippocampus (memory and learning); visual and haptic information (touch) also retained  A lot of activity/ interconnections with the hippocampus which has a critical role in information of new, ‘explicit’, memories; factual information (cognitive); not connected with learning new movement/motor skills- supported by cerebellum  If hippocampus is removed, you would be unable to form new long-term memories Primary Auditory Cortex: left hemisphere: ability to comprehend speech is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere Frontal Lobe : functions in working memory; contains primary (primary motor cortex- M1; final pathway of action) and secondary motor areas; the ‘seat’ of consciousness  SMA- supplementary motor area  PM- pre-motor area Subcortical Structures : Brain stem: role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness; all info to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain autonomic processes like respiration  Has to pass through the brain stem through the spinal cord; some places can control basic movement (superior colliculus or SC); responsible for making sakai (controlled movement) (ex eye movement) all voluntary and goal-directed Cerebellum: minor hemisphere (unimportant); learning and producing movement; involved in the coordination of voluntary movement, balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone  Involved in forming implicit memories (motor skills); long-term implicit is very difficult to re- learn  Critically involved with timing for movement; a clock that is able to time when muscles should be active or inactive; stuttering is a soft deficit to the cerebellum: no structure difference however it may be ‘different’  Lesions lead to cerebellar ataxia (inability to coordinate balance, gait, extremity and eye movements); bilateral Stroke: disrupts the blood flow to the brain (similar to a heart attack); very anaerobic structure (needs oxygen rich blood) Hemorrhagic stroke: rupture of arterial wall leading to bleeding within the brain; blood very toxic to neuron (leads to neuronal death) Ischemic stroke: blockage of artery to or within the brain; lack of oxygen (anoxia) leads to neuronal death  As neurons die, there is an empty space created and it fills with spinal fluid The Primary Motor Cortex (M1): direct control over how we move; final common pathway to action; 50% of all the neurons that make up a descending motor pathway arise from M1; movement can be directly produced only by the very specific region of the cortex- the motor cortex  Jackson: this British physician’s wife had intractable
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