18 Pages

Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry

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TRAINING ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE • Time motion analysis • With a lot of sports its easy to figure out the energy system that are predominantly use (constant time of performance • Eg. swimming, running - you know the duration of performance • With some sports (ie. basketball/volleyball) need to quantify how much time is spent running/ jumping so you can figure out which systems are going to be used (the physiological requirements) • Training is specific to the particular requirements of that sport - need to train within the physiological parameters that will allow you to be successful in that particular sport • >> Again, comparing energy systems and power output • ATP-PCr vs. glycolytic vs aerobic system • Remember, aerobic system does take some time to be fully activated • You are always getting some contribution from your anaerobic system, even during long duration exercise • Taking different energy systems and training them in a way that will give you the greatest adaptation Effects of Training • Metabolism - how do the enzymes involved in various metabolic pathways change? • Cardiorespiratory - what are the changes that occur with the heart and respiratory system? • Muscle - what changes occur in the muscle? Effects of Training on METABOLISM • Within each energy pathway, we want to be able to provide more energy in a shorter period of time • Muscle adapts to be a more effective energy provider • Intensity and duration influence adaptation • Interaction between how long a work interval is and the intensity of work • Trying to make it specific to the adaption you’re trying to acquire from the particular energy system of interest • Work/Recovery • You can also manipulate total amount of work and the amount of recovery within intervals within the training session • Aerobic training.... • Increased ability to use oxygen is accompanied by increased fuel supply and better control of metabolism • Remember, we’re only consuming O2 at the end of the ETC • We need substrate for all these pathways • Better control - variation in power output, need to control between energy switching and of the energy systems • With resistance training leading to increase muscle mass (ie. increase in muscle cross-section), aerobic capacity of muscles actually decreases • Becomes problematic when you have sports that require significant amounts of strength and aerobic power (eg. rugby, rowing, hockey) • Key points: • Increased capacity • Increase in mitochondrial size and number • Remember, aerobic metabolism is happening within the mitochondria • increase size and number - can consume more oxygen, aerobically can do more work • With increased mitochondria, get increased enzyme concentration and activity • rate of reaction increases with training • this results in an increased aerobic capacity - vmax increases, use more oxy at a faster rate • Increased fuel storage (we get to this later on...) • Sparing of CHO (we get to this later on...) • 1) Months of training and percent change in VO2max • Within the first 1 month, 12-13% increase in VO2max • When untrained individuals start doing aerobic training, we see very large changes very quickly • After 2nd month, increase in VO2max tends to level off • Within a year of training, only within the first few months will you see large changes in VO2max - throughout year, VO2max will continue to increase but at a much slower rate • Initial increase then a plateau • 2) what they were looking at was training distance or volume - looking at swimming, thousands of m/day, increasing volume contantly - relation between volume and vo2 changes diminishes over time (need to do much more training), increasing volume of training linearly • 3) %change in SDH - sdh is the rate limiting enzyme in krebs (part of aerobic), chnage in sdh act incre in a libear fashio over 7months, continual change within the krebs cycle (spec within sdh enzyme), better cor between change in volume and change in sdh activity compared to vo2 Enzyme activites and associated adaptations some studies will look at: sDH (regulatory enzyme of krebs), citrate synthase??? and NADH (electron carrier/ acceptor goign into ETC, more NAD, more Hs you can transport) Gastrocnemius enzyme activity in untrained (UT) subjects, moderately trained (MT) joggers, and highly trained (HT) marathon runners much greater levels as volume/intensity of aerobic training increases well trained will all show very hgih activiy levels of SDH and citrate synthase - reflecting the type of training theyre involved in increased capacity aerobic capacity increases over time and gradually levels off VOLUME - how much do you have to do?? this is a very controversial topic in sports physiology 120km, 12hrs a week (20km/day in a 6 day training week) 2 runners; increasing distance per week how does the increase in the volume of training, how is this reflected in their VO2max (part of your aerobic performance is based on your VO2max) - there is some difference in the runners themselves... Runner A: up to 80km/week we see an increase in VO2, past this point no change in vo2max althought training volume was increasing Runner B: up to 12km/week we see an increase in VO2, increasing from 80km/week to 120km/week did result in a change in VO2max in this individual there seems to a be a limit on the actual volume required - effect of volume on increasing VO2 max seems to level off as well increased capacity aerobic capacity increases over time and gradually levels off both duration and intensity of exercise are important influence on these adaptations • >> Daily run time vs. muscle fiber mitochondrial content • Remember, mitochondrial number is increasing with aerobic training • Looking at the effect of varying training duration and training intensity • a: low intensity, 90 minutes duration, no change in mitochondrial content • b: slight increase in intensity, 90 minutes duration, slight increase in mitochondrial content • c: larger increase in intensity, 90 minutes duration, larger increase in mitochondrial content • d: moderate-high intensity, down to 30 minutes duration, same adaptation at 30 minutes than we see at 90 minutes at a lower intensity • We can get the same adaptation at a higher intensity and lower adaptation • e: very high intensity, 15 minutes duration, very large increase in mitochondrial content • Less time spent in the activity but you’re getting the most change in aerobic capacity • Intensity of training is important; volume doesn’t seem to be as important! ETC changes due to aerobic training cytochrome C regulatory complex within the electron transport chain if you can increase cytochrome C content, you can pass Hs through ETC at a faster rate increasing max oxygen consumption (as you consuming oxygen, that reflects the amount of ATP you’re producing aerobically) specifc changes with individual fiber tpyes white - FT, nothing happens at lower intentsittion, somehwere aroudn 80% vo2max is where you BEGIN to see that fiber startin to adapt, actualyl becoming a little more aerobic, you CAN have a fg fiber that becomes mroe aerobic but need to be trainign at VERY HGIH itensitesi (close to vo2max) soleus - pred ST fiber; increases up to 83%vo2max, greatest adaptation occurs at this relatively high vo2max, you do see changes at lower intensities but they’re not as great, as you continue to increase intensity the adaptation actualyl starts to disappear; with st fiber theres an optimal percentage of vo2max (83-90) after that as you continue to increase the adaptation starts to decrease **where is the best training intensity for these fibers? 15-20 min at fairly high output red - FOG, as you increase intentisty, peaks at around 83%, responds a little dif as inte continu to increas, adapt doesnt diasspear, training at higher intensity still enables these fiber to maintain that high adapatation invensity vs. change in cytochrome C depending on which fiber types you’re tlaking about, theyre going to be responding at dif int of ex whtie vastus - fg fiber looking at change in cyto c with training duration what we see... if you want the best adatpation its goign to occur at 15 min duration 90 mins, no change as you keep increating intensity you get some change you see the most chnage with intensity is maximzed as you increase intensity you’re recruiting more of tehse fibers (at lower intensity, you dont recruit as many ft fibers) fibers have to contribute, thats when you’re going to see those changes occurring summary at lower in of training (left side of red line) you do see change in St go over this again!! fibers, they do respond mod-high int, FT, low ox fiber DONT respond (is impt, you do see change in st fibers) high int- adaptation begins for ft fiber, you’re recruiting more Effects of Anaerobic Training - higher intensity above threshold (there in an anaerobic component to aerobic training at higher intensities) • After exercise training maximal lactate output is increases but the onset is delayed • more lactate = more energy from glycolytic system • lactate threshold is delayed as you con to inc work that yu’re doing... • This spares muscle glycogen and enables some athletes with a lower VO2max to compete at a higher %age of VO2max during competition and win • Remember, if you’re producing lactic acid it means you’re going through anaerobic pathways and thus using up glycogen • glycogen sparing - more glycogen stores for longer • Effect of training on lactate threshold •HOW? • Moderate execise • higher intesity aerobic at or above threshold • Buffering two groups... looking at blood lactate levels with changes in vo2max and treadmill speed onset of lactate production is dlayed with training increase intensity - vo2max untrained, 55% vo2max, starts to increase lactate, as intensity increases they produce more lactate, look at other graph - 8.5km/h, starting rely on glycolysis trained, 80% vo2max, start to increase lactate, getting closer to vo2max before they sart producing lactic acid, even if you have no change in vo2max they can stil preform muc better bc they can perofrma t a ghieher intensity before they start to produce lactic acid you can have a situation where someone has a higher vo2max but if you have a higher threshold lreative to their threshold - you can run faster for longer periods of time increase threshold relative to vo2max (this is the physiological aspect) simulatenous increase in speed you can run at (this is the practical aspect) Increase fuel storage with training, muscle glycogen content may be increased 2x (double) • glycogen is the major fuel at higher int muscle adapts higher cardio output for longer period so time in those activities where you pred use glycogen ) k n a t l 0 0 1 a e v a h w o n , k n a t l 0 5 ( diet composition is extremely have to have that high CHO to accompany the training (training canincrease capacity of storage) eventhoguth our msucle can accomodate this extra storage of glyc...we’re not getting it with training, lipid content of the muscle is increased as is lipid use - the result is glycogen sparing anyt eim we can use lipid as fuel, it means we’re goin to spare glycogen enzymes involved in beta ox vmax ffa concentratin on the bottom - substrat concentration speed of reaction - velovity off FFA utilization, need enzymes looking at trained vs. untrained untrained - trained - vmax incre trem, slop (speed at which you can used ffa) increases - both engable you to get more en from breakdown fat at hgiher power outputs enzyme concentration goes up - fast max reaction rate enzyme activity - faster slope? changes in beta oxidation rer decreases with trianing at all inentisties if rer goes down it means you’re burning more fts if you brn more fats, you’re burning less cho, endurance will improve happens at all levels of diferent int of ex eAerobic Training - Summary increased ability to use oxygen (met path improvie) is accompanied by increased fuel supply and better control of metabolism with resistance training leading to increased muscle mass, aerobic capacity or muscles actually decreases Anaerobic Training • ATP-PCr (2-10s) and anaerobic glycolysis (20-90s) • Remember that anaerobic metabolism still contributes during long-duration exercise...anytime you’re above lactic threshold you’re going to have significant contirbutions from anaerobic metabolism • Weights effective in overloading the muscle - increasing strength (3-8 repetitions) • Need to be doing very few repetitions to allow the muscles to adapt • Increase in creatine kinase (CK) and myokinase/adenylate kinase (MK) (10-15%) • More enzymes to make the reactions go faster • Increase in ATP and PCr (25-40%) • Actual concentration of ATP and PCr in muscle increases - more energy available • Increased ability to use glycogen • More fuel available to be used as an energy source Changes With Metabolism During Training Untrained Anaerobically Trained Aerobically Trained Aeeobbc Enzymes Oxxdatve Systemte Succinate 8.1 8.0 20.8a dehydrogenase Malate dehydrogenase 45.5 46.0 65.5a Carnitine palmityl 1.5 1.5 2.3a transferase Annaerobc Enzymes Untrained Anaerobically Trained Aerobically Trained ATPPPCCrsystemte Creatine kinase 609.0 702.0a 589.0 Myokinase 309.0 350.0a 297.0 Glycolytcsystemte Phosphorylase 5.3 5.8 3.7a Phosphfructokinase 19.9 29.2a 18.9 Lactate 766.0 811.0 621.0 dehydrogenase • If you train aerobically (more than 3 minutes in duration) will see changes in the aerobic system • Increased activity of enzymes associated with the aerobic system • If you train will see changes in the anaerobic system • Increased activity of enzymes associated with the anaerobic system • This is related to the specificity of training principle • ‘a’ denotes a significant difference from the untrained value • If you’re training anaerobically, you will actually see a decrease in activity of enzymes involved with aerobic systems - look at enzyme activity within the ATP-PCr system and glycolytic system Cardiorespiratory Adaptations • Changes in heart size and weight occur as a result of training • Increase in LV wall thickness • Heart walls get thicker - this is an effect of resistance and endurance training • During exercise, systolic BP can get up to 200-220mmHg • During chronic endurance training, we expose the heart to high heart rates and high systolic pressures - this will lead to an increase in heart size and thus heart weight • >> Left ventricular hypertrophy with training • Looking at the differences in mean wall thickness between endurance training (runners and cyclists) and resistance training (weight training) • Ventricular diameter - LV size • Aerobic athletes are going to have larger chambers • Mean wall thickness • Even though with resistance training you can have very high systolic BP (ie. when lifting heavy weights), you’re doing limited number of repetitions -
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