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Kinesiology 2298A/B
Laura Misener

Sports Management Midterm Review Chapter 1: Defining the Field of Sport Management Sport Management Management of those organizations whose major domain of operation is sport and physical activity - An area that includes a wide variety of sport-related careers - The field of study offering the specialized training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry Sport Organization A social entity involved in the sport industry; it is goal directed with a consciously structured activity system and relatively identifiable boundary Sport Manager A person whose job entails planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling … within the context of an organization whose primary or predominant product or service is sport and sport-related Socio-Cultural - “Sport is human life in a microcosm” Foundations of Sport - Need to critically examine the sport industry and discuss political, social, and cultural sport-related issues - Socio-cultural investigation of sport involve viewing sport within social, organizational & institutional settings Sport as Cultural Hegemony: People who have societal power reproduce this privilege in the sport industry - Entertainment & fun - Encourage capitalist business expansion - Profit maximization - Support positions of power Theoretical Functionalism Perspectives - Society is viewed as an organized system of interrelated parts held together by shared values and social processes that minimize differences and promote consensus among people Conflict Theory Emphasizes social & political inequalities and the resulting economic and power differentials - “Opiate of Masses”; “Beer & Circuses” - Professionalism - Exploitation of minority - Racism, sexism, militarism Multiple Perspective Approach - Traditional view of sport management may legitimize existing economic and political power structures - This approach allows for an understanding of the negative social implications, and can be more egalitarian & inclusive Organizational Organizations Economics Mechanisms that have evolved to facilitate the exchange of products In sport organizations: Variations in structures & processes of different sport organizations reflects the products they exchange & the nature of that exchange Examples Professional team – Produces entertainment, charges admission, regulates itself (ex. NFL cap) Fitness club – Profit oriented, service, maintains facilities & equipment, rents or provides service to clients, changes with needs/demands City Recreation Department – Provides programs to public, maintains facilities, non-profit, tax dollars **These 3 are all managed differently Sport as an Organizational Culture Theory Institution Pattern of assumptions that a given group invented, discovered, or developed in learning to cope - Relationship to the environment - Nature of reality or truth - Nature of human nature - Nature of human activity - Nature of human relationships Institutional Logics Set of material practices & symbolic construction, which constitutes an institution’s organizing principles - Determine what is acceptable - Establishes routine - Guides evaluation & implementation - Created precedent Products as Goods A Good A physical object that can be produced at one time&used later - Equipment needed to engage in sport/activity - Promotional materials & merchandise - Could be used in the production of services ** Products as Services A Service Intangible occurrence, process or experience - Produced & consumed simultaneously - Almost all sport & recreational organizations can be classified as a service organization Attributes of Services Intangible – Customer cannot judge quality before obtaining it (in most cases) Perishable – Cannot be produced & used later Heterogeneous – Goods are more uniform; Services are more variable 1. Differences in service providers result in different experiences for clients 2. The same employee may not provide the same level of service from one time to another 3. The quality of experienced service can be affected by the consumer’s frame of mind Simultaneous – Service has to be consumed as it’s produced Inseparability – Production & consumption cannot be separated **Various services may differ among themselves in the degree of relevance of each of the 4 attributes (a continuum) Participant Services Services offered to help clients engage in sport or physical activity Consumer Services - Largely based on low-skilled & routine services (including renting of facilities & retailing of goods) - Require very little expertise on the part of the service providers who interact with the clients Consumer – Pleasure = The scheduling or reserving of facilities or equipment by clients who seek pleasure in PA Consumer – Health/Fitness = The scheduling or reserving facilities or equipment to satisfy clients’ desire to maintain their fitness & health Human Services - “Define or alter the person’s behavior, attributes, & social status in order to maintain or enhance their well-being” - “The inputs of raw material are human beings with specific attributes, & their production outputs are persons processed or changed in a predetermined manner.” (Processes cannot be standardized) - While client expectations are legitimate, only professional experts decide on the service to be provided - The clients who are the input get actively involved in the process of producing the relevant service; However, the client’s active involvement may hinder the employee’s activities and judgment - Clients may not be compliant to expert directions Human – Skill = The expert application of teaching technology & leadership in developing the skills of the clients in various forms of sport & PA Human – Excellence = Provide expert guidance & coaching for clients for clients in their pursuit of excellence in a chosen PA Human – Sustenance = The organization & conduct of exercise & fitness programs on a regular basis under the guidance & supervision of an expert leader (ex. Aerobics instructors leading a group of clients) Human – Curative = Designing & offering PA programs to rehabilitate those in need of improvement in fitness, health or physical appearance Spectator Services Services that provide an entertainment value to clients - Purposes: 1) To make a profit, and 2) to pursue the goal of excellence The Contest 1. The excellence exhibited by the participants 2. The unpredictability of the outcomes of a contest 3. The loyalty & attachment of people to certain sports/teams/athletes - Spectators are more interested in watching a game between 2 top- ranked teams The Spectacle - Wants the whole experience you can get out of it The “Third Place” Experience - Biggest growing area for this kind of service - Experience the game in a different way (ex. A bar) - Third places offer opportunities for casual encounters with strangers of a quasi-primary kind Sponsorship ** The acquisition of rights to affiliate or directly associate with a product or Services event for the purpose of deriving benefits related to that affiliation or association. The sponsor then uses this relationship to achieve its promotional objectives or to facilitate and support its broader marketing objectives - By being involved with an event, people are more willing to go and buy their products Sponsorship Objectives 1. Creating awareness of the sponsor’s produces and services, and or corporate name 2. Competing with other companies 3. Reaching new target markets composed of people of similar activities, interests and opinions 4. Establishing long-term relationships with clients 5. Building up the image of the sponsor 6. Increasing sales 7. Linking with local businesses and political communities 8. Entertainment corporate customers 9. Improving employee relations 10. Testing of company products under “real life” conditions **Major service offered to the sponsors is the access to communication with a specific market (the direct or indirect consumers of a sport) - Sponsors are able to pursue their promotional & marketing objectives Donor Services Psychic benefits of making a donation 1. Alltruistic = Want to do something good 2. Egoistic = What people to know who you are - Act of donating may serve both simultaneously - Naming rights - Tied to marketing rights - Gain access to decision makers - Biggest one; Large donations ** Service to Social Promotion of social objectives (ideas) such as fitness & health through PA Ideas - TRIM (Europe), PARTICIPACTION (Canada), NASPE (United States) - Nike’s “Just Do It” campaign **All these efforts are aimed at exchanging with the public the social idea & the practice of participation in PA, and the benefits of such participation Sport Management Human Resources as Coordination of - The people involved in the production of sport services the Production & - Ex. Volunteers, professionals, clients, employees Marketing of Sport Services Technologies - The systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical purposes & includes new ideas, inventions and techniques & materials - Varies from service to service & also varies with the quality levels expected of a service - Ex. Science, coaching science, pedagogy Support Units - They facilitate the production of a given service - May deal with facility management, event management, personnel management, financial management, public relations, sport law & sport finance Context in Which Production & Marketing Take Place - What are you actually trying to produce - Organizational type - Culture = Behind the team’s ‘need-to-know’ for marketing - Market conditions = Changes in the demand for the service The Canadian Sport Industry Professional Sport Tier One - Increasing global presence - Difficult to compete with large markets - Increasing social disparity - Currently 7 NHL teams Tier Two - Increasing national presence - Declining attendance - CFL, AHL, NLL Tier Three - Seeking to establish a presence in North America - Difficult to compete - Potentially growth areas - NWHL, CASCAR, USL Professional Sport Sports Entertainment National Events - Economic impact - Tourism - Sport development - Nationalism - Rogers Cup, LPGA, Pan/ParaPan Am 2015 University/College - Quality educational & athletic experience Sport - Unity of purpose, respect for autonomy - Integrity & fair play - Trust & mutual respect - Equity & equality of experience Olympic Sport Sport Canada Policies Programs Hosting - “To enhance opportunities for Canadians to participate & excel in sport” - We make sure that we have an identity in the sport world National/Provincial/Territorial Sport Organizations - Non-profit bodies governing all Olympic & Non-Olympic sports; Regulate Olympic & non-Olympic sport - Provinces focus on amateur sport, recreation, & fitness Grassroots - Increasing emphasis on grassroots sport for sport development, health, and fitness - Lacks funding and generally unsupported by governments Chapter 2: Classical View of Organizations Organizations - A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific Defined purpose - Interconnected sets of individuals and groups who attempt to accomplish common goals through differentiated functions and intended coordination Common Elements of Organizations - More than one person is needed - Specialized contributions / functions of each member - Coordination of specialized functions - Common ends / goals being sought (every organization has a mission) Attributes of an Identity Organization Organization has its own identity separate from members - People leave, identity remains - Independent of individuals Instrumentality Goal achievement is beyond capacity of individual members - Component of an organization that has a key knowledge to aid members A Program of Activity Involved in specific activities - Specific program of activities define the goals of the organization & the domain in which it operates Membership Organizations define who can have a membership - Staff, clients, people involved - Beyond members buying a membership at a fee **In some organizations, the notion of membership may be restrictive in the sense that only members with certain assigned attributes would be accepted as members (ex. Certain age range for little league) Clear Boundaries Defined by goals, programs, members in terms of its area of operation, its personnel, & its customers and clients Permanency Large organizations are more permanent than the members who compose them - On a yearly basis this organization continues to exist after their event, program, activity Division of Labour Divided into units to efficiently carry out jobs - Ex. Top heavy vs. Flat Hierarchy of Authority Necessary for control & coordination - You need some level of authority to specify who has authority over whom and for what purposes Formal Rules & Procedures Direct & control members; Ensure work is consistent with goals Fottler’s Classes of Private For-Profit Organizations - Businesses & corporations whose capital is provided by investors - Outside individuals provide financial support Private Nonprofit - Supported by donations, endorsements, government - Not necessarily public - Tend to provide good Private Quasi-Public - Created & partly funded by government & authorized to provide particular goods or services (ex. Universities) Public - Primary form of financing is taxation Criteria for Profit Orientation Classifying - Profit vs. Nonprofit Organizations o Profit = The profit they make stays at the top (ex. CEO, investors, etc.) o Nonprofit = If/when they make a profit it goes back into the organization & goes towards the member and client base - Revenue maximization - Generating profit vs. creating surplus Source of Funding - Private contributions (shareholders) - Capital investments - Sales - Charitable donations - Tax money (federal, provincial, municipal) Prime Beneficiary - Mutual benefit associations; The members or rank-&-file participants are the prime beneficiaries - Business concerns; The owners or managers of the organization are the prime - Service organizations; The clients or public-in-contact are the prime - Commonweal organizations; The public-at-large is the prime Employee-Customer Interface - Mainenance – Interactive - Basic level - Not a lot of knowledge exchange - Not a lot of face-to-face time - Decisions by the employee are simple - Task – Interactive - More level of interaction - Some knowledge of transfer - More face-to-face time - Very task oriented in terms of what needs to get done - Decisions are more complex - Personnel – Interactive - Great level of interaction - Large knowledge transfer - High level of employee – customer interface - Clients are typically unaware or imprecise about what will best serve their interest & how to go about remedying a situation** - The employee processes the information & makes the decisions Volunteer Participation - Run by primarily volunteers (not paid) - Membership is voluntary (not required) - Furthers common interest - - Independent of government Chapter 3: Systems View of Organizations Systems Defined System: Composed of … - A number of parts - Relationships between the parts - Attributes of their parts & their relationship to whole A set of interrelated & interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole - - The essential meaning of interactions between system elements is that a change in one system element causes, induces, or otherwise leads to a change in one or more other system elements Closed v. Open Closed Systems - Relatively impervious to the environment (not affected by the external environment) Open - Reacts to change (social, cultural, & economic conditions) - - Relatively open to the influences of the surrounding environment Organizations as Subsystems = Every system has a subsystem; If it isn’t working, it’ll affect the Open Systems whole Boundaries = Set to suit specific purposes (not always clear) External environment = General (distal) or task (proximal) environment Internal environment Distal (General) Environment - Economic = Wages, labour, physical costs, market places, state of economy - Social = Demography of the population, social values - Political = Democracy, corruption, influence of political parties - Legal = Influence of politics, laws (ex. Labour, employment regulations) - Technological = Production, distribution of goods, services - Technology associated with the production of a firm’s goods & services Proximal (Task) Environment - Customer = Client characteristics; Those who buy goods & services - Competition = Others producing similar services & compete for the same customers or clients - Labor = Employees & their relations - Suppliers = Of resources (inputs) - More clearly related to the system & influences is more directly - These elements have a more direct & immediate effect on the organization **Refers to proximity NOT in geography but in task Processes in Open - Must constantly scrutinize its program of activities & change or upgrade them Systems to suit environment exigencies Negative Entropy Stop process toward disorder & decay; Management must adapt to change! - Aimed at stopping the decline & ensuring the growth of the organization - These also maintain the system in a state of dynamic equilibrium - Self-Regulation = Of internal processes; Changes in personnel, organizational structure - Progressive Segregation = Greater specialization & regulation of work units - Progressive Mechanization = As systems grow, there is a need for more and better control with a set of procedures & regulations for each subsystem regarding what to do and when and how it should be done - To the extent that these rules & procedures are comprehensive, the tasks within the units tend to be more & more mechanical & routine Equifinality 2 systems start from different positions can end up at same final position - Objectives can be achieved in different, multiple ways - The ability of differing organizations to achieve similar ends depends on the subsystems & their processes being consistent with each other & with the task environments Multifinality Similar internal conditions can lead to different final states Organizations as An open system is an exchange relationship with its environment Systems of Inputs- - The system receives the necessary inputs (resources) from the Throughputs- environment Outputs - - It then processes those inputs into certain outputs (finished products) for the benefit of society Inputs Resources that flow into organizations - Material resources (money, facilities, equipment) - Human resources (professionals, employees, volunteers) - Values, norms (constrain the organizations to operate in certain ways) - Expectations (societal, community, clients, alumni, organizations) Throughputs Transforming inputs into outputs - Structures & systems (authority, rewards) - Processes (ex. Planning, organizing, leading, & evaluating) - Human interactions **The essence of good management is to make these throughput processes congruent with the attitudes, beliefs, skills, role orientations & group affiliations of the employees in the organization Outputs Products (goods & services) - Must fit within environment, demand - The relationships between the two dependencies – resource needs & output acceptance – is direct, the one affecting the other, with systems throughput processes being the intervening variables Maintenance - Must adapt to external influences in order to survive & grow - The satisfaction of the employees & the ability of the organization & its members to cope with and adapt to external influences are crucial to the maintenance of the organization, its growth, and its viability Feedback Loops Internal / Organizational Feedback Loop - Indicates the degree to which the organization is achieving objectives - Changes required to correct shortfalls Environmental Feedback Loop - Helps to keep organizational outputs in tune with environmental needs - Feedback use to alter inputs (ex. Secure resources) Environmental Systems Theory Influences on Emphasis on internal & external environment in which an organization Organizations exists - Theoretical Frameworks for understanding environmental dynamics: 1. Stakeholder theory 2. Institutional theory 3. Resource dependence theory Stakeholders - Persons or groups that have or claim ownership, rights, or interests in an organization and its activities, past, present, or future - Any group of individuals who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization’s objectives - Stakeholder rights & interests stem from their interactions with the focal organization - - Examples: Parents, players, media, sponsors, local community, facility providers, other clubs, suppliers Classifications of Stakeholders Voluntary or Involuntary - Whether they have chosen to be involved Primary or Secondary (or Tertiary) - Based on relative contribution they made to survival & growth of organizations - Primary = One without whose continuing participation the corporation cannot survive as a going concern - Secondary = Those that do not directly interact with the focal organization but that can affect or be affected by the focal organization Demand-Side or Supply-Side - Those that consume (demand) & those that produce (supply) goods &/or services Managing Stakeholders - Effective stakeholder management involves having a clear understanding of stakeholder perceptions and preferences - Recognizing that members of a single stakeholder group may differ widely in the priorities they place an organizational goals & processes Salience of Stakeholders - Three significant attributes can decide salience: 1. Power = What level of power do stakeholders have? 2. Legitimacy = Do they have a legitimate claim to participate with the organization?  Based on contractual or legal obligations, as well as moral interests in the harms & benefits that an organization creates 3. Urgency = Are you going to deal with the group of stakeholders now or in a few days?  The speed at which a claim by a stakeholder group should be attended to **Not mutually exclusive!! Institutional Theory - Every organization is influenced by similar organizations & by its social system - Institutional Isomorphism = The process of organizations being similar to each other - An organization gains legitimacy it seeks by strong associations with similar other organizations & by adopting structures and processes similar to those of other organizations - Coercive isomorphism - Mimetic isomorphism - Normative isomorphism Coercive Isomorphism Political / social influences direct organizations to behave in similar ways - External pressures Mimetic Isomorphism Adopt successful practices from other organizations - In quest for legitimacy & support from their environments - To reduce uncertainty Normative Isomorphism Organizations behave similarly because of value/belief systems of decision makers - Gaining legitimacy & power Resource The idea that an organization is dependent on others for it’s resource (ex. Dependency Theory Financial, Physical, Social) - Power differential between two organizations is conditioned by: - Importance of a resource to an organization - Control by another organization over that resource - Lack of alternatives for securing the resource Chapter 4: Meaning of Management Management Defined - The process of working with people & resources to accomplish organizational goals - The process of communicating, coordinating, and accomplishing action in the pursuit of organizational objectives while managing relationships with stakeholders, technologies, and other artifacts both within as well as between organizations Common Elements of Management Concerns - Goals/objectives to be achieved - Limited resources - People (with & through) - Effectiveness (in achieving goals) - Efficiency (maximizing the benefits for a given cost) **Minimize the inputs & maximize the outputs Functions of Planning Management - Setting the goals for the organization & its members (what) - Specifying how to achieve those goals (how) - May be short term - Managers need to identify the constraints within which the organization must operate; Also entails forecasting the future - Basis for all other functions (**The most important, however typically done the most poorly) Organizing - Breaking down the total work into specific jobs - Specifies who should do what; Individuals & groups - Methods of coordination = Achieve this by establishing a formal hierarchy of authority specifying the chain of command within the organization Leading - Influencing & motivating members to achieve - A process in which leader & followers interact in a way that enables the leader to influence the actions of the followers in a non-coercive way, towards the achievement of certain aims & objectives Evaluating - Assessing how well the organization accomplished what is set out to do - Involves feedback & performance measures; Measuring performance & comparing that performance to standards set in the planning process - Enables corrective action Skills of Managers Conceptual Understanding how various functions are able to work together & set a plan in motion - Ability to see the enterprise as a whole - Recognize how the various functions depend on one another - Recognize how changes in any one part affect all the other - Visualizing the relationship of the individual business to the industry, the community, & the political, social & economical forces of the nation as a whole Human Understand & dealing with people (HR approach) - Executive’s ability to work effectively as a group member & to build a corporative effort within the team they lead - Demonstrated in the way the individual perceives their superiors, equals, & subordinates, and in the way they behave subsequently Technical Understanding of & proficiency in methods & procedures related to job - As specific to that area of specialization in which the organization is engaged - However some technical skills are transferable Competencies of Intellectual Competencies Managers Seeing implications & consequences - Analyzing causal relationships - Seeking information from multiple sources - Making plans & strategies to achieve goals - Understand how parts fit together & identifying & interpreting patterns of events Influence Ability to persuade - Directing them to do things in specific ways - Effectively interacting with groups and influence outcomes - Letting key members be part of decisions - Setting a personal example Self-Confidence Seeing oneself as most capable person to get the job done - Prime mover Roles of a Manager Formal Authority & Status ↓ Interpersonal Roles Figurehead - Involves ceremonial duties in which the manager represents the organization in public functions Leader - Supervises & motivates subordinates Liason - Involves the establishment & maintenance of contacts outside the department, unit or group ↓ Informational Roles Monitor - Manager consciously seeks information from within the unit as well as from outside it - Obtain any & all kinds of information that will have a bearing on the organization Disseminator - They pass relevant information on to their subordinates Spokesperson - Manager is mainly involved in lobbying for the unit & justifying what goes on within the unit or organization ↓ Decisional Roles Entrepreneur - Manager initiates new & innovative projects with the view to enhancing the viability & effectiveness of the organization Disturbance Handler - Manager is forced to react to changes & pressures beyond their control Resource Allocator - When managers distribute resources to different units or members Negotiator - A manager resolves issues with employees & outsiders Managerial Myths & Myth: Managers are reflective & systematic planners Facts Fact: Managers work at an unrelenting pace & are oriented to action & dislike reflective activities Myth: Managers have no regular duties to perform Fact: Managers have a number of regular duties, including negotiation, ritual & ceremony, & processing soft information (HR skills) Myth: Managers need aggregated information, provided by a formal management information system Fact: Managers prefer verbal media, namely phone calls & meetings Myth: Management is quickly becoming a science Fact: Managers’ processes & programs remain intuitive & complex Chapter 5: Planning Planning Defined - A decision making process that focuses on the future or the organization and how it will get to where it wants to go - The conscious, systematic process of making decisions about goals and activities that an individual, group, work, unit, or organization will pursue in the future Steps in the Planning Specifying Goals Processes - Profitability - Growth - Market share - Productivity/efficiency - Leadership in the market - Client satisfaction - Social awareness Identifying Opportunities As a result of various trends & conditions - Economic - Social - Cultural - Demographic - Environmental - Political - Legal - Technological - Competitive **Choice of organizational goals depends on the opportunities available in the organization’s environment - Opportunities may also arise out of conditions internal to the organization Identifying Constraints - Limited resources (finances, time or personnel) - Government or inter-organizational network regulations - Competition - Geography, climate and physical resources - Internally generated constraints Generating Alternative Courses of Action - Develop new, varied alternatives in addition to existing ones - Provide for open communication - Encourage creativity & ingenuity - Look at the practices & activities of other, successful organizations (Bench marking) Benchmarking As A Planning Tool - As a way to generate alternative courses of action, one should look at the practices and activities of other, successful organizations - Benchmarking is the “investigation of the best results among competitors & the practices that lead to those results” Establish Performance Criteria - There must be guidelines or performance criteria - Must be established independently from the processes by which the alternatives were generated Possible Performance Criteria - Relative cost & associated benefits (ie. Efficiency) of each alternative - Potential contribution to more than one goal - Ease of implementation - Ease of measurement - Conformity to societal norms and government sanctions - Availability of able personnel Select Alternative - Technical & routine in nature - The simplicity of this step emphasizes the fact that serious thought, careful deliberations, & necessary computations need to have gone into the previous steps of the planning process Specifications in the Plan Document - Goals being sought - Activities to be carried out to achieve goals - Initiatives of management - Responsibilities of organization’s members - Standards to be maintained - Methods & measures of performance - Controls to ensure conformance to plan Strategic Planning Strategic Intent = Captures the general identity, direction & level of aspirations / Intent Defined of the organization - What the organization ultimately wants to be & do Strategic Planning = The process of formulating, implementing, and evaluating organizational changes in ways that enable an organization to achieve its objectives - Encompasses all the units within the organizations & their operations Elements of Strategic Planning - Involves long-term planning - Defining mission, setting objectives & strategies - Involves decisions by top management - Requires allocation of large amounts of resources - Has significant long-term effects - Focuses on the organization’s interactions with the external environment & successful operations - Affects the entire organization Mission Statements Purpose - Sets an organization apart - Specifies the fundamental reason why the organization exists - Reveals information about the organization (product or service, markets, customers, philosophy) - Provides a foundation for the organization’s priorities, strategies, and plans Elements of a Mission Statement - Key elements in the company philosophy - Company’s self-concept - Company’s desired public image - Targeted customers & market - Principal products / services - Geographic domain - Care technologies - Expression of commitment to survival growth / profitability Standing Plans vs. Standing Plans = Carefully prepared at beginning of organizations lifetime Single-Use Plans - Can be used for some time Single-Use Plan = Devised for a one-time project - Will not be used again in the foreseeable future - Ex. Half time show at a game Budgeting - Nothing more than planning translated into sums of money - Planning must always have a financial aspect: budgeting is a logistical consequence of planning - A numerical plan for allocating resources to specific activities Incremental Budgeting = Exists when decision makers look at the total amount of money available & distributes it to various activities, programs, or departments based on precedent Rational-Comprehensive Budgeting = Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) - “Planning” involves defining the objectives to be accomplished - “Programming” entails designing various alternative programs to accomplish these objectives - “Budgeting” involves funding some of these programs & eliminating others based on the evaluative information Rational Planning & - Planning cannot proceed without goal specifications: Organizational Goals - Provide the direction & source of motivation for the members - Determine standards for performance & evaluation - Two types of goals: 1. Stated (official) goals 2. Real (operative) goals **Goals & objectives permeate the whole management process, providing an underpinning for planning efforts, direction, motivation, & control Stated (Official) Goals Announce (officially) what an organization says are its objectives; an attempt to justify its existence - Accommodate different desires & preferences through broad statements that are purposely vague & general - Legitimize the organization in a societal context & help to secure needed resources - However, they are often conflicting & excessively influenced by what society believes that organizations should do Real (Operative) Goals Reflect what the organization is actually trying to do, regardless of what the stated goals say - May be complementary to one another, while others may be in conflict o Goals classified as performance-oriented are complementary to each other o However, transmission of culture & national sport development may be in conflict with each other o Greater emphasis on one objective could mean reduction of the other - Are not explicitly stated; can be inferred through a scrutiny of key decisions (ex. Budgeting & personnel) - Decisions on the competing values represented by the goals influence the nature of the organization, & distinguish it form another with an identical official goal Planning Tools Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) - Developed jointly by representatives of the United States Navy & the management consulting firm of Booze, Allen, & Hamilton for research & development Critical Path Method (CPM) - Developed jointly by representatives of Du Pont & Remington-Rand to improve the planning & execution of both the construction of new production facilities & the maintenance shutdowns of existing facilities CPM Activities are shown as a network & precedence relationships using activity-or-node network construction - Single estimate of activity time - Deterministic activity times; Need to determine how long it should take you (realistically) PERT Activities are shown as a network of precedence relationships using activity-on-arrow network construction - Multiple time estimates - Probabilistic activity times; Not as critical for timeline Using CPM/PERT - Decompose tasks in project - Specify relationships between tasks (ie. Order) - Estimate time of tasks Activity on Node - A completion of an activity is represented by a node Activity on Arrow - An arrow represents a task, while a node is the completion of a task - Arrows represent order of events Gantt Chart Advantages - Gantt charts are quite commonly used - They provide an easy graphical representation of when activities (might) take place Limitations - Do not clearly indicate details regarding the progress of activities - Do not give a clear indication of interrelationship between the separate activities Managerial Decision Making Decision Making & - Decision making (making a choice among alternatives) underlies all Management managerial activities - A general theory of management must include principles of organization that will insure correct decision-making, just as it must include principles that will insure effective action Managerial Roles & Entrepreneur Decision Making - Choose new projects, to ensure viability & growth of the organization - Capitalizes on opportunities offered by the environment Disturbance Handler - Decide how to respond to changes in the environment Resource Allocator - Makes critical decisions on which individual or unity gets what resources Negotiator - Makes decisions that resolve the problems & conflict that arise within the organization Situations that call for decision making … Opportunity - A situation that could benefit the organization in: 1) Profitability, 2) Productivity, and 3) Growth Problem - A situation that could reduce an organizations: 1) Effectiveness or that could disrupt operations **Sport manager need to have a comprehensive understanding of the process of managerial decision making & the difficulties associated with it Steps in Decision 1. Define / Frame problem Making - Must be clear; If not, the subsequent steps will be futile - A more comprehensive frame would combine & synthesize both frames & present a holistic picture - “Variations in defining the same problem” 2. Generate all possible alternatives 3. Evaluate all alternatives (Must be based on meaningful criteria) 4. Select best alternative Programmed & Non- **The extent to which a manager would spend effort & time over a decision is Programmed based on 2 issues: Decisions Programmed Decisions - Made by applying decision rules in response to recurring situations or problems - Generally less complex & easier - Ex. Selling tickets, getting gym memberships Non-Programmed Decisions - Involves a situation that is unique & poorly defined - Cannot set specific decision rules / criteria that can be applied from year-to-year - Generally more complex & time consuming - Ex. Drafting players, hiring Significance of - The extent to which a manager focuses on a particular decision Decisions depends on: o Significance of the problem o Consequences of making a particular decision - In many cases, a relationship exists between programmability & significance of a decision Escalating Managers Commitment - May increasingly commit themselves to a particular decision, even though it may not have resulted in the desired results - May persist with failing courses of action; they are unwilling to admit past incorrect decisions (don’t want to admit that they are wrong)
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