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Kinesiology 3337A/B Final: 3337 Final Exam Review

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Kinesiology 3337A/B
Glen Belfry

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3337 Final Exam Review Storage Glucose pyruvate pyruvate oxidation acetyl CoA citric acid cycle respiratory chain Glycerol goes back and forth in glycolysis Some amino acids are broken down from proteins to enter glycolysis Glycerol is broken down from lipids to enter glycolysis Fatty acids are broken down from lipids to become acetyl coa to enter the citric acid cycle Excess fatty acids are turned back into lipids Purines and some amino acids are broken down from proteins as well as pyrimidines Storage component refers to access glucose stored as lipids Body Composition energy expenditure Metabolism: RQ Respiratory Quotient = CO2 produced O2 consumed Respiratory quotient is used in BMR basal metabolic rate calculations when estimated from CO2 production in ratio to O2 being consumed by the body It takes different amounts of O2 to oxidize different substrates into CO2 and H2O CHO: If it was a ratio of 1:1 then it would look like 6O2=6CO2 Fats: Ratio to oxidize palmitic acid is 0.69 (a saturated fatty acid) Protein: protein is not just oxidized, it needs to be deaminated in the liver to remove the N + S (ammonia) Ratio is 0.8 Urinary Nitrogen 1g of urinary nitrogen is excreted for every 6.25 g of protein metabolized for energy, each g of N represents 4.8L6.0L CO2 produced and O2 consumed respectively High blood levels of omega3 FFAs free fatty acids have decreased mortality rates, live longer and have decreased rates of heart disease and are protected against neurodegenerative diseases Protein Oxidation of Leucine (amino exercise) during exercise During steadystate oxygen consumption during exercise, more and more protein is being broken down and used, specifically at 2hr VO2 is 2.0Lmin meaning that past that almost 80 mmolkghr of leucine oxidation is occurring for protein to be used as fuel (recall oxidizing it to become components as fuel to change to acetyl coa to enter citric acid cycle) Recall amino acids to be used need the NH ammonia group removed as urea to be used as fuel The amino acid is converted into the acetyl coa through the addition of carboxyl groups or other chemicals Protein oxidation in men and women at rest pre and posttraining, the significance lies in the change in protein. Pre training there is more protein being used than after training where the body starts to use more fats instead of breaking down muscle Essential Fats Males 3 Essential Fats Females 12 Body Composition Models (1) Behnke Model 2 Component Model = fat mass + lean body mass Fat mass = nonessential fat Lean body mass = fatfree mass + essential fat (2) BrozekSiri fat mass + fat free mass (nonfat tissue) Body density assumes FFM is constant Fat compartment 0.900 Fat Free Compartment 1.100
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